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Sökning: WFRF:(Grodstein Francine)

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1.
  • Benetou, Vassiliki, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women : The CHANCES Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 31:9, s. 1743-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of elderly from Europe and United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (among which 116,509 women), aged ≥60 years old, from five cohorts, were followed-up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years accumulating 5,552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires. Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) derived by Cox proportional-hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤ 1 servings/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk [pooled adjusted HR:1.39, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.20, 1.58] in comparison to moderate intake (&gt;3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (&gt;5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison to the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of one or less servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. </p>
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2.
  • Benetou, Vassiliki, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women : The CHANCES Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 31:9, s. 1743-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of older adults from Europe and the United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (116,509 women) aged ≥60 years, from five cohorts, were followed up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years, accumulating 5552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) derived by Cox proportional hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤1 serving/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk (pooled adjusted HR, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.58) in comparison with moderate intake (&gt;3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (&gt;5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison with the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of 1 or &lt;1 servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk.</p>
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3.
  • Berendsen, Agnes A M, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Adherence to a Healthy Diet with Cognitive Decline in European and American Older Adults A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 43:3-4, s. 215-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AIM: To examine the association between a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and cognitive decline in older adults. METHODS: Data from 21,837 participants aged ≥55 years from 3 cohorts (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action [SENECA], Rotterdam Study [RS], Nurses' Health Study [NHS]) were analyzed. HDI scores were based on intakes of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, fruits and vegetables, and fiber. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in NHS and Mini-Mental State Examination in RS and SENECA were used to assess cognitive function from multiple repeated measures. Using multivariable-adjusted, mixed linear regression, mean differences in annual rates of cognitive decline by HDI quintiles were estimated. RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted differences in rates in the highest versus the lowest HDI quintile were 0.01 (95% CI -0.01, 0.02) in NHS, 0.00 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01) in RS, and 0.00 (95% CI -0.05, 0.05) in SENECA with a pooled estimate of 0.00 (95% CI -0.01, 0.01), I2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: A higher HDI score was not related to reduced rates of cognitive decline in European and American older adults.</p>
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4.
  • Joshi, Peter K, et al. (författare)
  • Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 523:7561, s. 459-462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P &lt; 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.</p>
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5.
  • McGee, Emma E., et al. (författare)
  • Smoking, Alcohol, and Biliary Tract Cancer Risk : A Pooling Project of 26 Prospective Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 111:12, s. 1263-1278
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. Methods: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend&lt;.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, &gt;40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. Conclusions: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.</p>
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6.
  • Papadimitriou, Nikos, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of hip fracture using disability-adjusted life-years a pooled analysis of prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Public Health. - 2468-2667. ; 2:5, s. E239-E246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: No studies have estimated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures using real-life follow-up cohort data. We aimed to quantify the burden of disease due to incident hip fracture using DALYs in prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium, and to calculate population attributable fractions based on DALYs for specific risk factors.</p><p>Methods: We used data from six cohorts of participants aged 50 years or older at recruitment to calculate DALYs. We applied disability weights proposed by the National OsteoporosisFoundation and did a series of sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of DALY estimates. We calculated population attributable fractions for smoking, body-mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, type 2 diabetes and parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives in women. We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts with pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis methods.</p><p>Findings: 223 880 men and women were followed up for a mean of 13 years (SD 6). 7724 (3·5%) participants developed an incident hip fracture, of whom 413 (5·3%) died as a result. 5964 DALYs (27 per 1000 individuals) were lost due to hip fractures, 1230 (20·6%) of which were in the group aged 75–79 years. 4150 (69·6%) DALYs were attributed to disability. Current smoking was the risk factor responsible for the greatest hip fracture burden (7·5%, 95% CI 5·2–9·7) followed by physical inactivity (5·5%, 2·1–8·5), history of diabetes (2·8%, 2·1–4·0), and low to average BMI (2·0%, 1·4–2·7), whereas low alcohol consumption (0·01–2·5 g per day) and high BMI had a protective effect.</p><p>Interpretation: Hip fracture can lead to a substantial loss of healthy life-years in elderly people. National public health policies should be strengthened to reduce hip fracture incidence and mortality. Primary prevention measures should be strengthened to prevent falls, and reduce smoking and a sedentary lifestyle.</p>
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7.
  • Papadimitriou, Nikos, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of hip fracture using disability-adjusted life-years: a pooled analysis of prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Public health. - 2468-2667. ; 2:5, s. e239-e246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> No studies have estimated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures using real-life follow-up cohort data. We aimed to quantify the burden of disease due to incident hip fracture using DALYs in prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium, and to calculate population attributable fractions based on DALYs for specific risk factors.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> We used data from six cohorts of participants aged 50 years or older at recruitment to calculate DALYs. We applied disability weights proposed by the National Osteoporosis Foundation and did a series of sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of DALY estimates. We calculated population attributable fractions for smoking, body-mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, type 2 diabetes and parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives in women. We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts with pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis methods.</p><p><strong>FINDINGS:</strong> 223 880 men and women were followed up for a mean of 13 years (SD 6). 7724 (3·5%) participants developed an incident hip fracture, of whom 413 (5·3%) died as a result. 5964 DALYs (27 per 1000 individuals) were lost due to hip fractures, 1230 (20·6%) of which were in the group aged 75-79 years. 4150 (69·6%) DALYs were attributed to disability. Current smoking was the risk factor responsible for the greatest hip fracture burden (7·5%, 95% CI 5·2-9·7) followed by physical inactivity (5·5%, 2·1-8·5), history of diabetes (2·8%, 2·1-4·0), and low to average BMI (2·0%, 1·4-2·7), whereas low alcohol consumption (0·01-2·5 g per day) and high BMI had a protective effect.</p><p><strong>INTERPRETATION:</strong> Hip fracture can lead to a substantial loss of healthy life-years in elderly people. National public health policies should be strengthened to reduce hip fracture incidence and mortality. Primary prevention measures should be strengthened to prevent falls, and reduce smoking and a sedentary lifestyle.</p><p><strong>FUNDING:</strong> European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.</p>
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