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Sökning: WFRF:(Gromada Jesper)

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1.
  • Corpeno Kalamgi, Rebeca, et al. (författare)
  • Mechano-signalling pathways in an experimental intensive critical illness myopathy model.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 594:15, s. 4371-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • KEY POINTS: Using an experimental rat intensive care unit (ICU) model, not limited by early mortality, we have previously shown that passive mechanical loading attenuates the loss of muscle mass and force-generation capacity associated with the ICU intervention. Mitochondrial dynamics have recently been shown to play a more important role in muscle atrophy than previously recognized. In this study we demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics, as well as mitophagy, is affected by mechanosensing at the transcriptional level, and muscle changes induced by unloading are counteracted by passive mechanical loading. The recently discovered ubiquitin ligases Fbxo31 and SMART are induced by mechanical silencing, an induction that similarly is prevented by passive mechanical loading.ABSTRACT: The complete loss of mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscles, i.e. loss of external strain related to weight bearing and internal strain related to activation of contractile proteins, in mechanically ventilated, deeply sedated and/or pharmacologically paralysed intensive care unit (ICU) patients is an important factor triggering the critical illness myopathy (CIM). Using a unique experimental ICU rat model, mimicking basic ICU conditions, we have recently shown that mechanical silencing is a dominant factor triggering the preferential loss of myosin, muscle atrophy and decreased specific force in fast- and slow-twitch muscles and muscle fibres. The aim of this study is to gain improved understanding of the gene signature and molecular pathways regulating the process of mechanical activation of skeletal muscle that are affected by the ICU condition. We have focused on pathways controlling myofibrillar protein synthesis and degradation, mitochondrial homeostasis and apoptosis. We demonstrate that genes regulating mitochondrial dynamics, as well as mitophagy are induced by mechanical silencing and that these effects are counteracted by passive mechanical loading. In addition, the recently identified ubiquitin ligases Fbxo31 and SMART are induced by mechanical silencing, an induction that is reversed by passive mechanical loading. Thus, mechano-cell signalling events are identified which may play an important role for the improved clinical outcomes reported in response to the early mobilization and physical therapy in immobilized ICU patients.
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2.
  • Eliasson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • PKC-dependent stimulation of exocytosis by sulfonylureas in pancreatic beta cells
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 271:5250, s. 813-815
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypoglycemic sulfonylureas represent a group of clinically useful antidiabetic compounds that stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood but are believed to involve inhibition of potassium channels sensitive to adenosine triphosphate (KATP channels) in the beta cell membrane, causing membrane depolarization, calcium influx, and activation of the secretory machinery. In addition to these effects, sulfonylureas also promoted exocytosis by direct interaction with the secretory machinery not involving closure of the plasma membrane KATP channels. This effect was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC) and was observed at therapeutic concentrations of sulfonylureas, which suggests that it contributes to their hypoglycemic action in diabetics.
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3.
  • Eliasson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • SUR1 Regulates PKA-independent cAMP-induced Granule Priming in Mouse Pancreatic B-cells.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Physiology. - : Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. - 0022-1295 .- 1540-7748. ; 121:3, s. 181-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of membrane capacitance were applied to dissect the cellular mechanisms underlying PKA-dependent and -independent stimulation of insulin secretion by cyclic AMP. Whereas the PKA-independent (Rp-cAMPS–insensitive) component correlated with a rapid increase in membrane capacitance of ~80 fF that plateaued within ~200 ms, the PKA-dependent component became prominent during depolarizations >450 ms. The PKA-dependent and -independent components of cAMP-stimulated exocytosis differed with regard to cAMP concentration dependence; the Kd values were 6 and 29 µM for the PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. The ability of cAMP to elicit exocytosis independently of PKA activation was mimicked by the selective cAMP-GEFII agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP. Moreover, treatment of B-cells with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against cAMP-GEFII resulted in partial (50%) suppression of PKA-independent exocytosis. Surprisingly, B-cells in islets isolated from SUR1-deficient mice (SUR1-/- mice) lacked the PKA-independent component of exocytosis. Measurements of insulin release in response to GLP-1 stimulation in isolated islets from SUR1-/- mice confirmed the complete loss of the PKA-independent component. This was not attributable to a reduced capacity of GLP-1 to elevate intracellular cAMP but instead associated with the inability of cAMP to stimulate influx of Cl- into the granules, a step important for granule priming. We conclude that the role of SUR1 in the B cell extends beyond being a subunit of the plasma membrane KATP-channel and that it also plays an unexpected but important role in the cAMP-dependent regulation of Ca2+-induced exocytosis.
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4.
  • Gromada, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Neuronal calcium sensor-1 potentiates glucose-dependent exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 102:29, s. 10303-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytosolic free Ca2+ plays an important role in the molecular mechanisms leading to regulated insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cell. A number of Ca2+-binding proteins have been implicated in this process. Here, we define the role of the Ca2+-binding protein neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 (NCS-1) in insulin secretion. In pancreatic beta cells, NCS-1 increases exocytosis by promoting the priming of secretory granules for release and increasing the number of granules residing in the readily releasable pool. The effect of NCS-1 on exocytosis is mediated through an increase in phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase beta activity and the generation of phosphoinositides, specifically PI 4-phosphate and PI 4,5-bisphosphate. In turn, PI 4,5-bisphosphate controls exocytosis through the Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion present in beta cells. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of phosphoinositide synthesis in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cell. We also demonstrate that NCS-1 and its downstream target, PI 4-kinase beta, are critical players in this process by virtue of their capacity to regulate the release competence of the secretory granules.
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5.
  • Ma, Xiaosong, et al. (författare)
  • Glucagon stimulates exocytosis in mouse and rat pancreatic {alpha} cells by binding to glucagon receptors.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0888-8809. ; 19:1, s. 198-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon, secreted by the pancreatic alpha-cells, stimulates insulin secretion from neighboring beta-cells by cAMP- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent mechanisms, but it is not known whether glucagon also modulates its own secretion. We have addressed this issue by combining recordings of membrane capacitance (to monitor exocytosis) in individual alpha-cells with biochemical assays of glucagon secretion and cAMP content in intact pancreatic islets, as well as analyses of glucagon receptor expression in pure alpha-cell fractions by RT-PCR. Glucagon stimulated cAMP generation and exocytosis dose dependently with an EC50 of 1.6-1.7 nm. The stimulation of both parameters plateaued at concentrations beyond 10 nm of glucagon where a more than 3-fold enhancement was observed. The actions of glucagon were unaffected by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) but abolished by des-His1-[Glu9]-glucagon-amide, a specific blocker of the glucagon receptor. The effects of glucagon on alpha-cell exocytosis were mimicked by forskolin and the stimulatory actions of glucagon and forskolin on exocytosis were both reproduced by intracellular application of 0.1 mm cAMP. cAMP-potentiated exocytosis involved both PKA-dependent and -independent (resistant to Rp-cAMPS, an Rp-isomer of cAMP) mechanisms. The presence of the cAMP-binding protein cAMP-guanidine nucleotide exchange factor II in alpha-cells was documented by a combination of immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR and 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP, a cAMP-guanidine nucleotide exchange factor II-selective agonist, mimicked the effect of cAMP and augmented rapid exocytosis in a PKA-independent manner. We conclude that glucagon released from the alpha-cells, in addition to its well-documented systemic effects and paracrine actions within the islet, also represents an autocrine regulator of alpha-cell function.
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6.
  • Braun, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • GABAB-receptor activation inhibits exocytosis in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells by G-protein-dependent activation of calcineurin.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - : The Physiological Society. - 1469-7793. ; 559:2, s. 397-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have investigated the regulation of hormone secretion from rat pancreatic islets by the GABAB receptors (GABABRs). Inclusion of the specific GABABR antagonist CGP 55845 in the extracellular medium increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion 1.6-fold but did not affect the release of glucagon and somatostatin. Conversely, addition of the GABABR agonist baclofen inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by ∼60%. Using RT-PCR, transcription of GABABR1a-c,f and GABABR2 subunits was detected in β-cells. Measurements of membrane currents and cell capacitance were applied to single β-cells to investigate the mechanisms by which GABABR activation inhibits insulin secretion. In perforated-patch measurements, baclofen inhibited exocytosis elicited by 500-ms voltage-clamp depolarizations to 0 mV by ≤ 80% and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry by only ∼30%. Both effects were concentration-dependent with IC50 values of ∼2 μm. The inhibitory action of baclofen was abolished in the presence of CGP 55845. The ability of baclofen to suppress exocytosis was prevented by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin and by inclusion of GDPβS in the intracellular medium, and became irreversible in the presence of GTPγS as expected for a process involving inhibitory G-proteins (Gi/o-proteins). The inhibitory effect of baclofen resulted from activation of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase calcineurin and pre-treatment with cyclosporin A or intracellular application of calcineurin autoinhibitory peptide abolished the effect. Addition of baclofen had no effect on [Ca2+]i and electrical activity in glucose-stimulated β-cells. These data indicate that GABA released from β-cells functions as an autocrine inhibitor of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets and that the effect is principally due to direct suppression of exocytosis.
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7.
  • Braun, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Regulated Exocytosis of GABA-containing Synaptic-like Microvesicles in Pancreatic {beta}-cells.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Physiology. - : Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. - 0022-1295 .- 1540-7748. ; 123:3, s. 191-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have explored whether {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is released by regulated exocytosis of GABA-containing synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in insulin-releasing rat pancreatic ß-cells. To this end, ß-cells were engineered to express GABAA-receptor Cl--channels at high density using adenoviral infection. Electron microscopy indicated that the average diameter of the SLMVs is 90 nm, that every ß-cell contains ~3,500 such vesicles, and that insulin-containing large dense core vesicles exclude GABA. Quantal release of GABA, seen as rapidly activating and deactivating Cl--currents, was observed during membrane depolarizations from -70 mV to voltages beyond -40 mV or when Ca2+ was dialysed into the cell interior. Depolarization-evoked GABA release was suppressed when Ca2+ entry was inhibited using Cd2+. Analysis of the kinetics of GABA release revealed that GABA-containing vesicles can be divided into a readily releasable pool and a reserve pool. Simultaneous measurements of GABA release and cell capacitance indicated that exocytosis of SLMVs contributes ~1% of the capacitance signal. Mathematical analysis of the release events suggests that every SLMV contains 0.36 amol of GABA. We conclude that there are two parallel pathways of exocytosis in pancreatic ß-cells and that release of GABA may accordingly be temporally and spatially separated from insulin secretion. This provides a basis for paracrine GABAergic signaling within the islet.
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8.
  • Buschard, Karsten, et al. (författare)
  • C16:0 sulfatide inhibits insulin secretion in rat beta-cells by reducing the sensitivity of KATP channels to ATP inhibition
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 55:10, s. 2826-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sulfatide (3'-sulfo-beta-galactosyl ceramide) is a glycosphingolipid present in mammalians in various fatty acid isoforms of which the saturated 16 carbon-atom length (C16:0) is more abundant in pancreatic islets than in neural tissue, where long-chain sulfatide isoforms dominate. We previously reported that sulfatide isolated from pig brain inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion by activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP) channels). Here, we show that C16:0 sulfatide is the active isoform. It inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by reducing the sensitivity of the K(ATP) channels to ATP. (The half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 10.3 and 36.7 micromol/l in the absence and presence of C16:0 sulfatide, respectively.) C16:0 sulfatide increased whole-cell K(ATP) currents at intermediate glucose levels and reduced the ability of glucose to induce membrane depolarization, reduced electrical activity, and increased the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration. Recordings of cell capacitance revealed that C16:0 sulfatide increased Ca2+-induced exocytosis by 215%. This correlated with a stimulation of insulin secretion by C16:0 sulfatide in intact rat islets exposed to diazoxide and high K+. C24:0 sulfatide or the sulfatide precursor, beta-galactosyl ceramide, did not affect any of the measured parameters. C16:0 sulfatide did not modulate glucagon secretion from intact rat islets. In betaTC3 cells, sulfatide was expressed (mean [+/-SD] 0.30 +/- 0.04 pmol/microg protein), and C16:0 sulfatide was found to be the dominant isoform. No expression of sulfatide was detected in alphaTC1-9 cells. We conclude that a major mechanism by which the predominant sulfatide isoform in beta-cells, C16:0 sulfatide, inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion is by reducing the K(ATP) channel sensitivity to the ATP block.
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9.
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10.
  • Dwivedi, Om Prakash, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of ZnT8 function protects against diabetes by enhanced insulin secretion
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; , s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A rare loss-of-function allele p.Arg138* in SLC30A8 encoding the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), which is enriched in Western Finland, protects against type 2 diabetes (T2D). We recruited relatives of the identified carriers and showed that protection was associated with better insulin secretion due to enhanced glucose responsiveness and proinsulin conversion, particularly when compared with individuals matched for the genotype of a common T2D-risk allele in SLC30A8, p.Arg325. In genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived β-like cells, we establish that the p.Arg138* allele results in reduced SLC30A8 expression due to haploinsufficiency. In human β cells, loss of SLC30A8 leads to increased glucose responsiveness and reduced KATP channel function similar to isolated islets from carriers of the T2D-protective allele p.Trp325. These data position ZnT8 as an appealing target for treatment aimed at maintaining insulin secretion capacity in T2D.
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