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Sökning: WFRF:(Grontved Anders)

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1.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676 .- 1549-1277. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). METHODS AND FINDINGS: All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction)  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
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2.
  • Zhou, Bin, et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980 : A pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 387:10027, s. 1513-1530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are aff ecting the number of adults with diabetes. Methods: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes target if post-2000 trends continue. Findings: We used data from 751 studies including 4372000 adults from 146 of the 200 countries we make estimates for. Global age-standardised diabetes prevalence increased from 4.3% (95% credible interval 2.4-17.0) in 1980 to 9.0% (7.2-11.1) in 2014 in men, and from 5.0% (2.9-7.9) to 7.9% (6.4-9.7) in women. The number of adults with diabetes in the world increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (28.5% due to the rise in prevalence, 39.7% due to population growth and ageing, and 31.8% due to interaction of these two factors). Age-standardised adult diabetes prevalence in 2014 was lowest in northwestern Europe, and highest in Polynesia and Micronesia, at nearly 25%, followed by Melanesia and the Middle East and north Africa. Between 1980 and 2014 there was little change in age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adult women in continental western Europe, although crude prevalence rose because of ageing of the population. By contrast, age-standardised adult prevalence rose by 15 percentage points in men and women in Polynesia and Micronesia. In 2014, American Samoa had the highest national prevalence of diabetes (>30% in both sexes), with age-standardised adult prevalence also higher than 25% in some other islands in Polynesia and Micronesia. If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global target of halting the rise in the prevalence of diabetes by 2025 at the 2010 level worldwide is lower than 1% for men and is 1% for women. Only nine countries for men and 29 countries for women, mostly in western Europe, have a 50% or higher probability of meeting the global target. Interpretation: Since 1980, age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adults has increased, or at best remained unchanged, in every country. Together with population growth and ageing, this rise has led to a near quadrupling of the number of adults with diabetes worldwide. The burden of diabetes, both in terms of prevalence and number of adults aff ected, has increased faster in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries.
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3.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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4.
  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8595 .- 2213-8587. ; 3:8, s. 624-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
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6.
  • Kilpelaeinen, Tuomas O., et al. (författare)
  • Obesity-susceptibility loci have a limited influence on birth weight : a meta-analysis of up to 28,219 individuals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 93:4, s. 851-860
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of 12 established BMI variants in or near the NEGR1, SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, BDNF, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, SH2B1, FTO, MC4R, and KCTD15 genes and their additive score with birth weight. Design: A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of 1) the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk, Hertfordshire, Fenland, and European Youth Heart Study cohorts (n(max) = 14,060); 2) data extracted from the Early Growth Genetics Consortium meta-analysis of 6 genome-wide association studies for birth weight (n(max) = 10,623); and 3) all published data (n(max) = 14,837). Results: Only the MTCH2 and FTO loci showed a nominally significant association with birth weight. The BMI-increasing allele of the MTCH2 variant (rs10838738) was associated with a lower birth weight (beta +/- SE: 213 +/- 5 g/allele; P = 0.012; n = 23,680), and the BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1121980) was associated with a higher birth weight (beta +/- SE: 11 +/- 4 g/allele; P = 0.013; n = 28,219). These results were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: Obesity-susceptibility loci have a small or no effect on weight at birth. Some evidence of an association was found for the MTCH2 and FTO loci, ie, lower and higher birth weight, respectively. These findings may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms by which these loci confer an increased risk of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:851-60.
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9.
  • Barker, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Association of genetic loci with glucose levels in childhood and adolescence a meta-analysis of over 6,000 children
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 60:6, s. 1805-1812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To investigate whether associations of common genetic variants recently identified for fasting glucose or insulin levels in nondiabetic adults are detectable in healthy children and adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-A total of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose were genotyped in six studies of children and adolescents of European origin, including over 6,000 boys and girls aged 9-16 years. We performed meta-analyses to test associations of individual SNPs and a weighted risk score of the 16 loci with fasting glucose. RESULTS-Nine loci were associated with glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents, with four of these associations reported in previous studies and five reported here for the first time (GLIS3, PROX1, SLC2A2, ADCY5, and CRY2). Effect sizes were similar to those in adults, suggesting age-independent effects of these fasting glucose loci. Children and adolescents carrying glucose-raising alleles of G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, and GLIS3 also showed reduced p-cell function, as indicated by homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function. Analysis using a weighted risk score showed an increase [beta (95% CI)] in fasting glucose level of 0.026 mrnol/L (0.021-0.031) for each unit increase in the score. CONCLUSIONS-Novel fasting glucose loci identified in genome-wide association studies of adults are associated with altered fasting glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents with effect sizes comparable to adults. In nondiabetic adults, fasting glucose changes little over time, and our results suggest that age-independent effects of fasting glucose loci contribute to long-term interindividual differences in glucose levels from childhood onwards. Diabetes 60:1805-1812, 2011
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10.
  • den Hoed, Marcel, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence influence of loci identified by genome-wide association studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - Alexandria, USA : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:11, s. 2980-2988
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.Research design and methods: Seventeen variants representing 16 obesity susceptibility loci were genotyped in 1,252 children (mean +/- SD age 9.7 +/- 0.4 years) and 790 adolescents (15.5 +/- 0.5 years) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). We tested for association of individual variants and a genetic predisposition score (GPS-17), calculated by summing the number of effect alleles, with anthropometric traits. For 13 variants, summary statistics for associations with BMI were meta-analyzed with previously reported data (N-total = 13,071 children and adolescents). Results: In EYHS, 15 variants showed associations or trends with anthropometric traits that were directionally consistent with earlier reports in adults. The meta-analysis showed directionally consistent associations with BMI for all 13 variants, of which 9 were significant (0.033-0.098 SD/allele; P < 0.05). The near-TMEM18 variant had the strongest effect (0.098 SD/allele P = 8.5 x 10(-11)). Effect sizes for BMI tended to be more pronounced in children and adolescents than reported earlier in adults for variants in or near SEC16B, TMEM18, and KCTD15, (0.028-0.035 SD/allele higher) and less pronounced for rs925946 in BDNF (0.028 SD/allele lower). Each additional effect allele in the GPS-17 was associated with an increase of 0.034 SD in BMI (P = 3.6 x 10(-5)), 0.039 SD, in sum of skinfolds (P = 1.7 x 10(-7)), and 0.022 SD in waist circumference (P = 1.7 X 10(-4)), which is comparable with reported results in adults (0.039 SD/allele for BMI and 0.033 SD/allele for waist circumference).Conclusions: Most obesity susceptibility loci identified by GWA studies in adults are already associated with anthropometric traits in children/adolescents. Whereas the association of some variants may differ with age, the cumulative effect size is similar. Diabetes 59:2980-2988, 2010
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