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1.
  • Jain, R., et al. (författare)
  • Liver nucleotide biosynthesis is linked to protection from vascular complications in individuals with long-term type 1 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of biomarkers associated with protection from developing diabetic complications is a prerequisite for an effective prevention and treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify clinical and plasma metabolite markers associated with freedom from vascular complications in people with very long duration of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Individuals with T1D, who despite having longer than 30 years of diabetes duration never developed major macro- or microvascular complications (non-progressors; NP) were compared with those who developed vascular complications within 25 years from diabetes onset (rapid progressors; RP) in the Scandinavian PROLONG (n = 385) and DIALONG (n = 71) cohorts. The DIALONG study also included 75 healthy controls. Plasma metabolites were measured using gas and/or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Lower hepatic fatty liver indices were significant common feature characterized NPs in both studies. Higher insulin sensitivity and residual beta-cell function (C-peptide) were also associated with NPs in PROLONG. Protection from diabetic complications was associated with lower levels of the glycolytic metabolite pyruvate and APOCIII in PROLONG, and with lower levels of thiamine monophosphate and erythritol, a cofactor and intermediate product in the pentose phosphate pathway as well as higher phenylalanine, glycine and serine in DIALONG. Furthermore, T1D individuals showed elevated levels of picolinic acid as compared to the healthy individuals. The present findings suggest a potential beneficial shunting of glycolytic substrates towards the pentose phosphate and one carbon metabolism pathways to promote nucleotide biosynthesis in the liver. These processes might be linked to higher insulin sensitivity and lower liver fat content, and might represent a mechanism for protection from vascular complications in individuals with long-term T1D.
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2.
  • Lango Allen, Hana, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P < 0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
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3.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
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4.
  • Randall, Joshua C., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 9:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5x10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
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5.
  • Shungin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 187-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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6.
  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K., et al. (författare)
  • Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 53-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and similar to 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 x 10(-8)), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
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7.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Bakhtadze, E, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in the TCF7L2 gene help to differentiate autoimmune from non-autoimmune diabetes in young (15-34 years) but not in middle-aged (40-59 years) diabetic patients
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 51:12, s. 2224-2232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes in children is characterised by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and the presence of certain risk genotypes. In adults the same situation is often referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). We tested whether genetic markers associated with type 1 or type 2 diabetes could help to discriminate between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes in young (15-34 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) diabetic patients. In 1,642 young and 1,619 middle-aged patients we determined: (1) HLA-DQB1 genotypes; (2) PTPN22 and INS variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms; (3) two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7903146 and rs10885406) in the TCF7L2 gene; (4) glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and IA-2-protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein (IA-2) antibodies; and (5) fasting plasma C-peptide. Frequency of risk genotypes HLA-DQB1 (60% vs 25%, p =9.4x10(-34); 45% vs 18%, p= 1.4x10(-16)), PTPN22 CT/TT (34% vs 26%, p=0.0023; 31% vs 23%, p=0.034), INS VNTR class I/I (69% vs 53%, p=1.3x10(-8); 69% vs 51%, p=8.5x10(-5)) and INS VNTR class IIIA/IIIA (75% vs 63%, p=4.3x10(-6); 73% vs 60%, p=0.008) was increased in young and middle-aged GAD antibodies (GADA)-positive compared with GADA-negative patients. The type 2 diabetes-associated genotypes of TCF7L2 CT/TT of rs7903146 were significantly more common in young GADA-negative than in GADA-positive patients (53% vs 43%; p=0.0004). No such difference was seen in middle-aged patients, in whom the frequency of the CT/TT genotypes of TCF7L2 was similarly increased in GADA-negative and GADA-positive groups (55% vs 56%). Common variants in the TCF7L2 gene help to differentiate young but not middle-aged GADA-positive and GADA-negative diabetic patients, suggesting that young GADA-negative patients have type 2 diabetes and that middle-aged GADA-positive patients are different from their young GADA-positive counterparts and share genetic features with type 2 diabetes.
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9.
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10.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:5, s. 501-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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