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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Keurhorst, M., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of primary healthcare providers' initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions in managing risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1748-5908. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective in reducing drinking problems but poorly implemented in routine practice. Although evidence about implementing brief interventions is growing, knowledge is limited with regard to impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on brief intervention implementation. Methods: In a cluster randomised factorial trial, 120 primary healthcare units (PHCUs) were randomised to eight groups: care as usual, training and support, financial reimbursement, and the opportunity to refer patients to an internet-based brief intervention (e-BI); paired combinations of these three strategies, and all three strategies combined. To explore the impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions, we performed multilevel linear regression analyses adapted to the factorial design. Results: Data from 746 providers from 120 PHCUs were included in the analyses. Baseline role security and therapeutic commitment were found not to influence implementation of brief interventions. Furthermore, there were no significant interactions between these characteristics and allocated implementation groups. Conclusions: The extent to which providers changed their brief intervention delivery following experience of different implementation strategies was not determined by their initial attitudes towards alcohol problems. In future research, more attention is needed to unravel the causal relation between practitioners' attitudes, their actual behaviour and care improvement strategies to enhance implementation science.
  • Anderson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the Optimizing Delivery of Health Care Intervention (ODHIN) five-country cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1360-0443 .- 0965-2140. ; 111:11, s. 1935-1945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To test if training and support, financial reimbursement and option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice (eBI) can increase primary health-care providers' delivery of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers. Design: Cluster randomized factorial trial with 12-week implementation and measurement period. Setting: Primary health-care units (PHCU) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Participants: A total of 120 PHCU, 24 in each of Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Interventions: PHCUs were randomized to one of eight groups: care as usual, training and support (TS), financial reimbursement (FR) and eBI; paired combinations of TS, FR and eBI, and all of FR, TS and eBI. Measurements: The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adult (age 18+ years) patients screened during a 12-week implementation period. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of screen-positive patients advised; and proportion of consulting adult patients given an intervention (screening and advice to screen-positives) during the same 12-week implementation period. Findings: During a 4-week baseline measurement period, the proportion of consulting adult patients who were screened for their alcohol consumption was 0.059 per PHCU (95% CI 0.034 to 0.084). Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the logged proportion screened during the 12-week implementation period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.13–1.95) in PHCU that received TS versus PHCU that did not receive TS; for FR, the ratio was 2.00 (95% CI = 1.56–2.56). The option of referral to eBI did not lead to a higher proportion of patients screened. The ratio for TS plus FR was 2.34 (95% CI = 1.77–3.10), and the ratio for TS plus FR plus eBI was1.68 (95% CI = 1.11–2.53). Conclusions: Providing primary health-care units with training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption. Providing primary health-care units with the option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice does not appear to increase screening for alcohol consumption. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction
  • Bendtsen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Professional's Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414. ; 50:4, s. 430-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation.
  • Palacio-Vieira, J., et al. (författare)
  • Improving screening and brief intervention activities in primary health care: Secondary analysis of professional accuracy based on the AUDIT-C
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - : WILEY. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 24:2, s. 369-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction and objectiveThe ODHIN trial found that training and support and financial reimbursement increased the proportion of patients that were screened and given advice for their heavy drinking in primary health care. However, the impact of these strategies on professional accuracy in delivering screening and brief advice is underresearched and is the focus of this paper. MethodFrom 120 primary health care units (24 in each jurisdiction: Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden), 746 providers participated in the baseline and the 12-week implementation periods. Accuracy was measured in 2 ways: correctness in completing and scoring the screening instrument, AUDIT-C; the proportion of screen-negative patients given advice, and the proportion of screen-positive patients not given advice. Odds ratios of accuracy were calculated for type of profession and for intervention group: training and support, financial reimbursement, and internet-based counselling. ResultsThirty-two of 36711 questionnaires were incorrectly completed, and 65 of 29641 screen-negative patients were falsely classified. At baseline, 27% of screen-negative patients were given advice, and 22.5% screen-positive patients were not given advice. These proportions halved during the 12-week implementation period, unaffected by training. Financial reimbursement reduced the proportion of screen-positive patients not given advice (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99; Pamp;lt;.05). ConclusionAlthough the use of AUDIT-C as a screening tool was accurate, a considerable proportion of risky drinkers did not receive advice, which was reduced with financial incentives.
  • Scherrer, B., et al. (författare)
  • Baseline severity and the prediction of placebo response in clinical trials for alcohol dependence: A meta-regression analysis to develop an enrichment strategy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research. - 0145-6008. ; 45:9, s. 1722-1734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There is considerable unexplained variability in alcohol abstinence rates (AR) in the placebo groups of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for alcohol dependence (AD). This is of particular interest because placebo responses correlate negatively with treatment effect size. Recent evidence suggests that the placebo response is lower in very heavy drinkers who show no "spontaneous improvement" prior to treatment initiation (high-severity population) than in a mild-severity population and in studies with longer treatment duration. We systematically investigated the relationship between population severity, treatment duration, and the placebo response in AR to inform a strategy aimed at reducing the placebo response and thereby increasing assay sensitivity in RCTs for AD. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review on placebo-controlled RCTs for AD.We assigned retained RCTs to high- or mild-severity groups of studies based on baseline drinking risk levels and abstinence duration before treatment initiation. We tested the effects of population severity and treatment duration on the placebo response in AR using meta-regression analysis. Results Among the 19 retained RCTs (comprising 1996 placebo-treated patients), 11 trials were high-severity and 8 were mild-severity RCTs. The between-study variability in AR was lower in the high-severity than in the mild-severity studies (interquartile range: 7.4% vs. 20.9%). The AR in placebo groups was dependent on population severity (p = 0.004) and treatment duration (p = 0.017) and was lower in the high-severity studies (16.8% at 3 months) than the mild-severity studies (36.7% at 3 months). Conclusions Pharmacological RCTs for AD should select high-severity patients to decrease the magnitude and variability in the placebo effect and and improve the efficiency of drug development efforts for AD.
  • Barack, Leor, et al. (författare)
  • Black holes, gravitational waves and fundamental physics : a roadmap
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Classical and quantum gravity. - : IOP Publishing. - 0264-9381 .- 1361-6382. ; 36:14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarkable predictions of General Relativity: event horizons, singularities and ergoregions. The hitherto invisible landscape of the gravitational Universe is being unveiled before our eyes: the historical direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration marks the dawn of a new era of scientific exploration. Gravitational-wave astronomy will allow us to test models of black hole formation, growth and evolution, as well as models of gravitational-wave generation and propagation. It will provide evidence for event horizons and ergoregions, test the theory of General Relativity itself, and may reveal the existence of new fundamental fields. The synthesis of these results has the potential to radically reshape our understanding of the cosmos and of the laws of Nature. The purpose of this work is to present a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the relevant fields of research, summarize important open problems, and lay out a roadmap for future progress. This write-up is an initiative taken within the framework of the European Action on 'Black holes, Gravitational waves and Fundamental Physics'.
  • Guiraud, J., et al. (författare)
  • Treating alcohol dependence with an abuse and misuse deterrent formulation of sodium oxybate: Results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X. ; 52, s. 18-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sodium oxybate (SMO) has been approved in Italy and Austria for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependent (AD) patients. Although SMO is well tolerated in AD patients, cases of abuse and misuse have been reported outside the therapeutic setting. Here we report on a phase IIb double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial for the maintenance of abstinence in AD patients with a new abuse and misuse deterrent formulation of SMO. A total of 509 AD patients were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo or one of four SMO doses (0.75, 1.25, 1.75 or 2.25 g t.i.d.) followed by a one-week medication-free period. The primary endpoint was the percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at end of treatment. An unexpectedly high placebo response (mean 73%, median 92%) was observed. This probably compromised the demonstration of efficacy in the PDA, but several secondary endpoints showed statistically significant improvements. A post-hoc subgroup analysis based on baseline severity showed no improvements in the mild group, but statistically significant improvements in the severe group: PDA: mean difference +15%, Cohen's d = 0.42; abstinence: risk difference +18%, risk ratio = 2.22. No safety concerns were reported. Although the primary endpoint was not significant in the overall population, several secondary endpoints were significant in the intent-to-treat population and post-hoc results showed that treatment with SMO was associated with a significant improvement in severe AD patients which is consistent with previous findings. New trials are warranted that take baseline severity into consideration. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Rehm, J., et al. (författare)
  • Defining Substance Use Disorders : Do We Really Need More Than Heavy Use?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 48:6, s. 633-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The aim of the study was to explore whether the concept of heavy substance use over time can be used as definition of substance use disorder. Methods: Narrative review. Results: Heavy use over time clearly underlies the neurobiological changes associated with current thinking of substance use disorders. In addition, there is evidence that heavy use over time can explain the majority of social problems and of burden of disease (morbidity and mortality). A definition of substance use disorders via heavy use over time would avoid some of the problems of current conceptualizations, for instance the cultural specificity of concepts such as loss of control. Finally, stressing the continuum of use may avoid the high level of stigmatization currently associated with substance use disorders. Conclusion: ‘Heavy substance use over time’ seems to be a definition of substance use disorders in line with results of basic research and epidemiology. Additionally, it reduces stigmatization. This approach should thus be further explored.
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