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Sökning: WFRF:(Guerrini Niccolò)

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1.
  • Guerrini, Niccolo, et al. (författare)
  • Charging Mechanism of Li2MnO3
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Chemistry of Materials. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 0897-4756 .- 1520-5002. ; 32:9, s. 3733-3740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Operando mass spectroscopy demonstrates quantitatively that lithium extraction from Li2MnO3 is charge compensated by oxygen loss (O-loss) not oxidation of oxide ions that are retained within the structural framework (O-redox). This fact is confirmed by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. Li NMR shows that the two-phase core-shell structure, which forms on charging, is composed of an intact Li2MnO3 core and a highly disordered shell containing no Li, with a composition close to MnO2. Discharge involves Li insertion into the disordered shell. CO2 and O-2 are detected on charging at 15 mA g(-1), whereas charging by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) forms only CO2; an observation in agreement with the previously described model of oxygen evolution from high-voltage cathodes producing singlet O-2 that reacts with the electrolyte forming CO2. The dominance of oxygen evolution over O-redox is in accordance with the model of O-loss occurring when the oxide ions are undercoordinated; O in the shell devoid of Li is coordinated by only 2 Mn.
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2.
  • Luo, Kun, et al. (författare)
  • Anion Redox Chemistry in the Cobalt Free 3d Transition Metal Oxide Intercalation Electrode Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O-2
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - 0002-7863 .- 1520-5126. ; 138:35, s. 11211-11218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conventional intercalation cathodes for lithium batteries store charge in redox reactions associated with the transition metal cations, e.g., Mn3+/4+ in LiMn2O4, and this limits the energy storage of Li-ion batteries. Compounds such as Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O-2 exhibit a capacity to store charge in excess of the transition metal redox reactions. The additional capacity occurs at and above 4.5 V versus Li+/Li. The capacity at 4.5 V is dominated by oxidation of the O-2(-) anions accounting for similar to 0.43 e(-)/formula unit, with an additional 0.06 e(-)/formula unit being associated with O loss from the lattice. In contrast, the capacity above 4.5 V is mainly O loss, similar to 0.08 e(-)/formula. The O redox reaction involves the formation of localized hole states on O during charge, which are located on O coordinated by (Mn4+/Li+). The results have been obtained by combining operando electrochemical mass spec on 180 labeled Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O-2 with XANES, soft X-ray spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Finally the general features of O redox are described with discussion about the role of comparatively ionic (less covalent) 3d metal oxygen interaction on anion redox in lithium rich cathode materials.
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3.
  • Luo, Kun, et al. (författare)
  • Charge-compensation in 3d-transition-metal-oxide intercalation cathodes through the generation of localized electron holes on oxygen
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemistry. - 1755-4330 .- 1755-4349. ; 8:7, s. 684-691
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de-and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of O-18-labelled Li-1.2[Ni0.132+Co0.133+Mn0.544+]O-2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li-1.2[Ni0.132+Co0.133+Mn0.544+]O-2 cathode, although we detected no O-2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li+ removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn4+ and Li+ ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O-2(2-)( peroxide, O-O similar to 1.45 angstrom) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.
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4.
  • Maitra, Urmimala, et al. (författare)
  • Oxygen redox chemistry without excess alkali-metal ions in Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemistry. - 1755-4330 .- 1755-4349. ; 10, s. 288-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The search for improved energy-storage materials has revealed Li-and Na-rich intercalation compounds as promising high-capacity cathodes. They exhibit capacities in excess of what would be expected from alkali-ion removal/reinsertion and charge compensation by transition-metal (TM) ions. The additional capacity is provided through charge compensation by oxygen redox chemistry and some oxygen loss. It has been reported previously that oxygen redox occurs in O 2p orbitals that interact with alkali ions in the TM and alkali-ion layers (that is, oxygen redox occurs in compounds containing Li+-O(2p)-Li+ interactions). Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2 exhibits an excess capacity and here we show that this is caused by oxygen redox, even though Mg2+ resides in the TM layers rather than alkali-metal (AM) ions, which demonstrates that excess AM ions are not required to activate oxygen redox. We also show that, unlike the alkali-rich compounds, Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2 does not lose oxygen. The extraction of alkali ions from the alkali and TM layers in the alkalirich compounds results in severely underbonded oxygen, which promotes oxygen loss, whereas Mg2+ remains in Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2, which stabilizes oxygen.
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5.
  • Naylor, Andrew J., et al. (författare)
  • Depth-dependent oxygen redox activity in lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2050-7488. ; 7:44, s. 25355-25368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium-rich materials, such as Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, exhibit capacities not limited by transition metal redox, through the reversible oxidation of oxide anions. Here we offer detailed insight into the degree of oxygen redox as a function of depth within the material as it is charged and cycled. Energy-tuned photoelectron spectroscopy is used as a powerful, yet highly sensitive technique to probe electronic states of oxygen and transition metals from the top few nanometers at the near-surface through to the bulk of the particles. Two discrete oxygen species are identified, On− and O2−, where n < 2, confirming our previous model that oxidation generates localised hole states on O upon charging. This is in contrast to the oxygen redox inactive high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, for which no On− species is detected. The depth profile results demonstrate a concentration gradient exists for On− from the surface through to the bulk, indicating a preferential surface oxidation of the layered oxide particles. This is highly consistent with the already well-established core–shell model for such materials. Ab initio calculations reaffirm the electronic structure differences observed experimentally between the surface and bulk, while modelling of delithiated structures shows good agreement between experimental and calculated binding energies for On−.
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