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  • Okbay, Aysu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 533:7604, s. 539-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
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  • Checa, A., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulations in circulating sphingolipids associate with disease activity indices in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus : a cross-sectional study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 26:10, s. 1023-1033
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of clinical and renal disease activity with circulating sphingolipids in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.Methods We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 27 sphingolipids in plasma from 107 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 23 controls selected using a design of experiment approach. We investigated the associations between sphingolipids and two disease activity indices, the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Damage was scored according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index. Renal activity was evaluated with the British Island Lupus Activity Group index. The effects of immunosuppressive treatment on sphingolipid levels were evaluated before and after treatment in 22 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active disease.Results Circulating sphingolipids from the ceramide and hexosylceramide families were increased, and sphingoid bases were decreased, in systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls. The ratio of C-16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate was the best discriminator between patients and controls, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.77. The C-16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate ratio was associated with ongoing disease activity according to the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, but not with accumulated damage according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Levels of C-16:0- and C-24:1-hexosylceramides were able to discriminate patients with current versus inactive/no renal involvement. All dysregulated sphingolipids were normalized after immunosuppressive treatment.Conclusion We provide evidence that sphingolipids are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus and associated with disease activity. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneously targeting multiple components of a pathway to establish disease associations.
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  • Kharlamova, N., et al. (författare)
  • False Positive Results in SARS-CoV-2 Serological Tests for Samples From Patients With Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are often treated with immunosuppressants and therefore are of particular concern during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Serological tests will improve our understanding of the infection and immunity in this population, unless they tests give false positive results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of SARS-Cov-2 serological assays using samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases collected prior to April 2019, thus defined as negative. Samples from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n=10), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=47) with or without rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=10) with or without RF, were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using 17 commercially available lateral flow assays (LFA), two ELISA kits and one in-house developed IgG multiplex bead-based assay. Six LFA and the in-house validated IgG assay correctly produced negative results for all samples. However, the majority of assays (n=13), gave false positive signal for samples from patients with RA and SLE. This was most notable in samples from RF positive RA patients. No false positive samples were detected in any assay using samples from patients with MS. Poor specificity of commercial serological assays could possibly be, at least partly, due to interfering antibodies in samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For these patients, the risk of false positivity should be considered when interpreting results of the SARS-CoV-2 serological assays.
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  • Parodis, I., et al. (författare)
  • Belimumab for systemic lupus erythematosus : a practice-based view
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 22:4, s. 372-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder with multiple organ involvement. B-lymphocyte activity plays a pivotal role in the development and course of the disease. A newly developed agent called belimumab has recently been approved to treat active, autoantibody positive SLE as an add-on to standard therapy. Specifically binding to soluble B-lymphocyte stimulator protein, it reduces the formation of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies. Its effects have been studied in one phase II and two phase III clinical trials, showing sustained improvement across various clinical indicators and no evidence of increased risk of serious adverse events. Further post-hoc analyses indicate that treatment with belimumab lowers levels of autoimmune antibodies, normalizes low complement and improves SLE activity predominantly in musculoskeletal and mucocutaneous organ domains. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of belimumab for patients with severe lupus nephritis and with active involvement of the central nervous system. The introduction of belimumab as the first biological drug approved for the management of SLE likely heralds a surge in the development and use of selectively addressed agents for this heterogeneous and complex disease.
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  • Parodis, I., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of B lymphocyte stimulator and a proliferation inducing ligand as candidate biomarkers in lupus nephritis based on clinical and histopathological outcome following induction therapy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Lupus Science and Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2053-8790. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major cause of morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of SLE. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) are pivotal in B cell homeostasis. We aimed to investigate a potential role of serum BLyS and APRIL as biomarkers in LN, especially as predictors of treatment response. Methods: Sixty-four patients with active LN (52 proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN); 12 membranous LN) were included. Renal biopsies were performed at baseline and after immunosuppressive treatment. Serum levels of BLyS, APRIL and autoantibodies were measured on both biopsy occasions and in 64 individually matched controls. Renal biopsies were evaluated using the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, and scored for Activity Index and Chronicity Index. Clinical responders (CR) were required to have ≥50% reduction in proteinuria, normal or improved renal function, and inactive urinary sediment. Histopathological responders (HR) were required to have ≥50% improvement in Activity Index. Results: Baseline BLyS levels were significantly higher in LN patients compared with controls (p<0.001) and remained unchanged following induction treatment. APRIL levels were significantly higher in patients compared with controls at baseline (p=0.005) and decreased following treatment ( p<0.001). Among PLN patients, APRIL levels decreased significantly only in responders (CR: p=0.009; HR: p=0.01). Baseline BLyS levels <1.5 ng/mL predicted treatment response, attaining a positive predictive value of 92% for CR with PLN at baseline. Conclusions: BLyS and APRIL were affected differently by immunosuppression; BLyS levels remained unchanged following therapy while APRIL levels decreased. Despite unchanged BLyS levels following therapy, low baseline levels predicted both clinical and histopathological improvement. Our data support APRIL as a candidate biomarker of renal disease activity in lupus patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis and point to low baseline BLyS levels predicting treatment response in LN, especially in PLN.
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