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  • Abelson, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 8:1, s. 69-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PDCD1, an immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance has previously been shown to be genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PDCD1 has two ligands whose genes are located in close proximity on chromosome 9p24. Our attention was drawn to these ligands after finding suggestive linkage to a marker (gata62f03, Z = 2.27) located close to their genes in a genome scan of Icelandic families multiplex for SLE. Here, we analyse Swedish trios (N = 149) for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of the PDCD1 ligands. Initially, indication of association to eight SNPs was observed, and these SNPs were therefore also analysed in Mexican trios (N = 90), as well as independent sets of patients and controls from Sweden (152 patients, 448 controls) and Argentina (288 patients, 288 controls). We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE.
  • Kharlamova, N., et al. (författare)
  • False Positive Results in SARS-CoV-2 Serological Tests for Samples From Patients With Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are often treated with immunosuppressants and therefore are of particular concern during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Serological tests will improve our understanding of the infection and immunity in this population, unless they tests give false positive results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of SARS-Cov-2 serological assays using samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases collected prior to April 2019, thus defined as negative. Samples from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n=10), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=47) with or without rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=10) with or without RF, were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using 17 commercially available lateral flow assays (LFA), two ELISA kits and one in-house developed IgG multiplex bead-based assay. Six LFA and the in-house validated IgG assay correctly produced negative results for all samples. However, the majority of assays (n=13), gave false positive signal for samples from patients with RA and SLE. This was most notable in samples from RF positive RA patients. No false positive samples were detected in any assay using samples from patients with MS. Poor specificity of commercial serological assays could possibly be, at least partly, due to interfering antibodies in samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For these patients, the risk of false positivity should be considered when interpreting results of the SARS-CoV-2 serological assays.
  • Leonard, Dag, et al. (författare)
  • Novel gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 77:7, s. 1063-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at autoimmunity risk loci were associated with CVD in SLE and RA.Methods Patients with SLE (n=1045) were genotyped using the 200K Immunochip SNP array (Illumina). The allele frequency was compared between patients with and without different manifestations of CVD. Results were replicated in a second SLE cohort (n=1043) and in an RA cohort (n=824). We analysed publicly available genetic data from general population, performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays and measured cytokine levels and occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs).Results We identified two new putative risk loci associated with increased risk for CVD in two SLE populations, which remained after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. An IL19 risk allele, rs17581834(T) was associated with stroke/myocardial infarction (MI) in SLE (OR 2.3 (1.5 to 3.4), P=8.5x10(-5)) and RA (OR 2.8 (1.4 to 5.6), P=3.8x10(-3)), meta-analysis (OR 2.5 (2.0 to 2.9), P=3.5x10(-7)), but not in population controls. The IL19 risk allele affected protein binding, and SLE patients with the risk allele had increased levels of plasma-IL10 (P=0.004) and aPL (P=0.01). An SRP54-AS1 risk allele, rs799454(G) was associated with stroke/transient ischaemic attack in SLE (OR 1.7 (1.3 to 2.2), P=2.5x10(-5)) but not in RA. The SRP54-AS1 risk allele is an expression quantitative trait locus for four genes.Conclusions The IL19 risk allele was associated with stroke/MI in SLE and RA, but not in the general population, indicating that shared immune pathways may be involved in the CVD pathogenesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
  • Pettersson, S., et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of patients and physicians assessments of disease activity using the Swedish version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0300-9742 .- 1502-7732. ; 46:6, s. 474-483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: We compared patients assessments of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity by a Swedish version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) with physicians assessments by the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). We also explored the performance of the SLAQ in patients with short (amp;lt;1year) versus long (1year) disease duration.Method: Patients filled out the SLAQ before physicians assessments. Correlations between SLAQ total, subscales (Symptom score, Flares, Patients global) and SLAM and SLEDAI-2K, as well as between the corresponding items in SLAQ and SLAM, were evaluated using Spearmans. Comparisons between patients with different disease durations were performed with Mann-Whitney U or chi-squared tests.Results: We included 203 patients (79% women), with a median age of 45years [interquartile range (IQR) 33-57 years] and disease duration of 5 years (IQR 0-14 years). Correlations between physicians SLAM without laboratory items (SLAM-nolab) and patients assessments were: SLAQ total, =0.685, Symptom score, =0.651, Flares, =0.547, and Patients global, =0.600. Of the symptom items, fatigue (=0.640), seizures (=0.635), and headache (=0.604) correlated most closely. Neurology/stroke syndrome, skin, and lymphadenopathy correlated less well (amp;lt;0.24). Patients and physicians assessments were notably more discordant for patients with short disease durations.Conclusion: We confirm that the SLAQ can be used to monitor disease activity. However, the discrepancy between patients and physicians assessments was greater for patients with short versus long disease duration. We encourage further use of the SLAQ, but would like to develop a shorter version which would be valuable in modern, partly web-based, clinical care.
  • Svenungsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Quick Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (Q-SLAQ): a simplified version of SLAQ for patient-reported disease activity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lupus Science & Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2053-8790 .- 1625-9823. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Most indices of disease activity in SLE combine physicians' assessments and laboratory tests. However, there is also a need to capture patients' perspectives of disease activity. Consequently, we need new, preferably quick and easy instruments to collect this information, which can be very useful for online consultations and registry purposes. We compared patients' assessments of SLE disease impact/activity, as reported by a shorter version of the Quick Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (Q-SLAQ), with physicians' assessments using SLE Activity Measure (SLAM) and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI-2K) and with the original Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ). Methods Patients with SLE (n=115), with a disease duration of 15 years (IQR 17), completed the Q-SLAQ prior to physicians' assessments by SLAM and SLEDAI-2K. A second set of patients (n=85) with similar characteristics filled out Q-SLAQ and SLAQ. Spearman's rho correlations were explored between patients' total Q-SLAQ and subscales (Symptom Score, Patient's Global Disease Activity) and physicians' SLAM and SLEDAI-2K, with and without laboratory items (SLAM-nolab and SLEDAI-2K-nolab) and SLAQ. Corresponding items in Q-SLAQ and SLAM were compared. Results Correlations between patients' and physicians' assessments were higher for SLAM-nolab (total Q-SLAQ, rho=0.71; Symptom Score, rho=0.67; and Patient's Global Disease Activity, rho=0.68) than for the original SLAM (total Q-SLAQ, rho=0.53; Symptom Score, rho=0.50; and Patient's Global Disease Activity, rho=0.53). Regarding specific symptoms, fatigue (rho=0.72) and alopecia (rho=0.71) correlated best, while pulmonary/respiratory symptoms correlated least (rho=0.19, p=0.039). Physicians assessment with SLEDAI-2K-nolab correlated weakly with patients' assessments (total Q-SLAQ, rho=0.30; Symptom Score, rho=0.30; and Patient's Global Disease Activity, rho=0.36). Bivariate correlations between Q-SLAQ and SLAQ were good (rho=0.82-0.96). Conclusions Q-SLAQ and the original SLAQ performed equally well, demonstrating that the shorter Q-SLAQ can safely be used to monitor patients' perception of disease impact/activity. We also noted an intriguing discrepancy between physicians' and patients' evaluations of pulmonary/respiratory symptoms, which requires further investigations.
  • Walhelm, T., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Experience of Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Regarding Efficacy and Safety in Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As treatment options in advanced systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are limited, there is an urgent need for new and effective therapeutic alternatives for selected cases with severe disease. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a specific, reversible, inhibitor of the 20S subunit of the proteasome. Herein, we report clinical experience regarding efficacy and safety from all patients receiving BTZ as therapy for SLE in Sweden during the years 2014-2020. 8 females and 4 males were included with a mean disease duration at BTZ initiation of 8.8 years (range 0.7-20 years). Renal involvement was the main target for BTZ. Reduction of global disease activity was recorded by decreasing SLEDAI-2K scores over time and remained significantly reduced at the 6-month (p=0.007) and the 12-month (p=0.008) follow-up visits. From BTZ initiation, complement protein 3 (C3) levels increased significantly after the 2(nd) treatment cycle (p=0.05), the 6-month (p=0.03) and the 12-month (p=0.04) follow-up visits. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio declined over time and reached significance at the 6-month (p=0.008) and the 12-month follow-up visits (p=0.004). Seroconversion of anti-dsDNA (27%), anti-C1q (50%) and anti-Sm (67%) was observed. 6 of 12 patients experienced at least one side-effect during follow-up, whereof the most common adverse events were infections. Safety parameters (C-reactive protein, blood cell counts) mainly remained stable over time. To conclude, we report favorable therapeutic effects of BTZ used in combination with corticosteroids in a majority of patients with severe SLE manifestations irresponsive to conventional immunosuppressive agents. Reduction of proteinuria was observed over time as well as seroconversion of some autoantibody specificities. In most patients, tolerance was acceptable but mild adverse events was not uncommon. Special attention should be paid to infections and hypogammaglobinemia.
  • Wang, C., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of IKBKE and IFIH1 gene variants to SLE susceptibility
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 14:4, s. 217-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The type I interferon system genes IKBKE and IFIH1 are associated with the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To identify the sequence variants that are able to account for the disease association, we resequenced the genes IKBKE and IFIH1. Eighty-six single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with potentially functional effect or differences in allele frequencies between patients and controls determined by sequencing were further genotyped in 1140 SLE patients and 2060 controls. In addition, 108 imputed sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1 were included in the association analysis. Ten IKBKE SNVs and three IFIH1 SNVs were associated with SLE. The SNVs rs1539241 and rs12142086 tagged two independent association signals in IKBKE, and the haplotype carrying their risk alleles showed an odds ratio of 1.68 (P-value = 1.0 x 10(-5)). The risk allele of rs12142086 affects the binding of splicing factor 1 in vitro and could thus influence its transcriptional regulatory function. Two independent association signals were also detected in IFIH1, which were tagged by a low-frequency SNV rs78456138 and a missense SNV rs3747517. Their joint effect is protective against SLE (odds ratio = 0.56; P-value = 6.6 x 10(-3)). In conclusion, we have identified new SLE-associated sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1, and proposed functional hypotheses for the association signals.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Novel risk genes for systemic lupus erythematosus predicted by random forest classification
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for SLE, but a large proportion of the genetic contribution to SLE still remains unexplained. To detect novel risk genes, and to predict an individual's SLE risk we designed a random forest classifier using SNP genotype data generated on the "Immunochip" from 1,160 patients with SLE and 2,711 controls. Using gene importance scores defined by the random forest classifier, we identified 15 potential novel risk genes for SLE. Of them 12 are associated with other autoimmune diseases than SLE, whereas three genes (ZNF804A, CDK1, and MANF) have not previously been associated with autoimmunity. Random forest classification also allowed prediction of patients at risk for lupus nephritis with an area under the curve of 0.94. By allele-specific gene expression analysis we detected cis-regulatory SNPs that affect the expression levels of six of the top 40 genes designed by the random forest analysis, indicating a regulatory role for the identified risk variants. The 40 top genes from the prediction were overrepresented for differential expression in B and T cells according to RNA-sequencing of samples from five healthy donors, with more frequent over-expression in B cells compared to T cells.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies complex contributions to genetic risk by variants in genes causing monogenic systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a complex etiology. The mode of inheritance of the genetic risk beyond familial SLE cases is currently unknown. Additionally, the contribution of heterozygous variants in genes known to cause monogenic SLE is not fully understood. Whole-genome sequencing of DNA samples from 71 Swedish patients with SLE and their healthy biological parents was performed to investigate the general genetic risk of SLE using known SLE GWAS risk loci identified using the ImmunoChip, variants in genes associated to monogenic SLE, and the mode of inheritance of SLE risk alleles in these families. A random forest model for predicting genetic risk for SLE showed that the SLE risk variants were mainly inherited from one of the parents. In the 71 patients, we detected a significant enrichment of ultra-rare (≤ 0.1%) missense and nonsense mutations in 22 genes known to cause monogenic forms of SLE. We identified one previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation in the C1QC (Complement C1q C Chain) gene, which explains the immunodeficiency and severe SLE phenotype of that patient. We also identified seven ultra-rare, coding heterozygous variants in five genes (C1S, DNASE1L3, DNASE1, IFIH1, and RNASEH2A) involved in monogenic SLE. Our findings indicate a complex contribution to the overall genetic risk of SLE by rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE. The rare variants were inherited from the other parent than the one who passed on the more common risk variants leading to an increased genetic burden for SLE in the child. Higher frequency SLE risk variants are mostly passed from one of the parents to the offspring affected with SLE. In contrast, the other parent, in seven cases, contributed heterozygous rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE, suggesting a larger impact of rare variants in SLE than hitherto reported.
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