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Sökning: WFRF:(Guralnik Jack M.)

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1.
  • Willer, Cristen J., et al. (författare)
  • Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 41:1, s. 25-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
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2.
  • Furberg, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 134-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior1,2. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], b = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, beta = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], b = 0.367, s. e. = 0.059, beta = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], b = 0.446, s. e. = 0.074, beta = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], b = 0.333, s. e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.
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3.
  • Pennells, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 40:7, s. 621-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after ‘recalibration’, a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied.Methods and results: Using individual-participant data on 360 737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled clinical implications of initiating statin therapy in people judged to be at ‘high’ 10 year CVD risk. Original risk algorithms were recalibrated using the risk factor profile and CVD incidence of target populations. The four algorithms had similar risk discrimination. Before recalibration, FRS, SCORE, and PCE over-predicted CVD risk on average by 10%, 52%, and 41%, respectively, whereas RRS under-predicted by 10%. Original versions of algorithms classified 29–39% of individuals aged ≥40 years as high risk. By contrast, recalibration reduced this proportion to 22–24% for every algorithm. We estimated that to prevent one CVD event, it would be necessary to initiate statin therapy in 44–51 such individuals using original algorithms, in contrast to 37–39 individuals with recalibrated algorithms.Conclusion: Before recalibration, the clinical performance of four widely used CVD risk algorithms varied substantially. By contrast, simple recalibration nearly equalized their performance and improved modelled targeting of preventive action to clinical need.
4.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
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5.
  • Morley, John E., et al. (författare)
  • Sarcopenia With Limited Mobility : An International Consensus
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. - 1525-8610 .- 1538-9375. ; 12:6, s. 403-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A consensus conference convened by the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders has concluded that "Sarcopenia, le, reduced muscle mass, with limited mobility" should be considered an important clinical entity and that most older persons should be screened for this condition. "Sarcopenia with limited mobility" is defined as a person with muscle loss whose walking speed is equal to or less than 1 m/s or who walks less than 400 m during a 6-minute walk, and who has a lean appendicular mass corrected for height squared of 2 standard deviations or more below the mean of healthy persons between 20 and 30 years of age of the same ethnic group. The limitation in mobility should not clearly be a result of otherwise defined specific diseases of muscle, peripheral vascular disease with intermittent claudication, central and peripheral nervous system disorders, or cachexia. Clinically significant interventions are defined as an increase in the 6-minute walk of at least 50 meters or an increase of walking speed of at least 0.1 m/s.
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6.
  • Liang, Yajun, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in Disability in Activities of Daily Living Among Chinese Older Adults, 1997-2006 : The China Health and Nutrition Survey
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006. ; 70:6, s. 739-745
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. A decline in prevalence of late-life disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) has been reported in Western countries. We investigate the time trend of disability in basic ADLs among Chinese older people in 1997-2006, and explore the potential contribution of cardiometabolic diseases to the trend. Methods. The study included 7,845 participants (age &gt;= 60 years) in the China Health and Nutrition Survey who were examined in 1997, 2000, 2004, and 2006. Data on ADLs were collected through interviews. Disability in basic ADLs was defined as need of assistance or inability to perform at least one of the five self-care activities of bathing, dressing, toileting, feeding, and transferring. Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the time trend in ADL disability and its association with cardiometabolic diseases. Results. Prevalence of ADL disability decreased from 13.2% in 1997 to 9.9% in 2006; the trend was statistically evident among people aged 60-69 years, women, and rural residents (p(trend) &lt;.05). From 1997 to 2006, the prevalence of ADL disability decreased at a relative annual rate of 3.1% in total sample; the decline was statistically more evident in young-olds than older-olds, in men than women, and in rural than urban residents. The disabling effect decreased over time for stroke (p(trend) = .032) and multiple cardiometabolic diseases (p(trend) = .014). Conclusions. The prevalence of disability in basic ADLs among Chinese older adults decreased from 1997 to 2006. Stroke and multiple cardiometabolic diseases appear to become less disabling over time, which may partly contribute to the favorable trend in ADL disability.
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