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1.
  • Berthomier, M., et al. (författare)
  • Alfvén : magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 33:2-3, s. 445-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.</p>
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2.
  • Berthomier, M., et al. (författare)
  • Alfven : magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 33:2-3, s. 445-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.</p>
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3.
  • Berthomier, M., et al. (författare)
  • Alfven : magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - Dordrecht : Springer. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 33:2-3, s. 445-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.</p>
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6.
  • Gad, Helge, et al. (författare)
  • MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 508:7495, s. 215-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs, resulting in DNA damage and cell death. We validate MTH1 as an anticancer target in vivo and describe small molecules TH287 and TH588 as first-in-class nudix hydrolase family inhibitors that potently and selectively engage and inhibit the MTH1 protein in cells. Protein co-crystal structures demonstrate that the inhibitors bind in the active site of MTH1. The inhibitors cause incorporation of oxidized dNTPs in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage, cytotoxicity and therapeutic responses in patient-derived mouse xenografts. This study exemplifies the non-oncogene addiction concept for anticancer treatment and validates MTH1 as being cancer phenotypic lethal.
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9.
  • Schmidt, Catarina (författare)
  • Att bli en sån som läser : Barns menings- och identitetsskapande genom texter
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis focuses on nine children’s use of texts and literacy learning, both inside and outside of school, in a multilingual and multicultural setting in Sweden. The study investigates and maps texts that children encounter and use in their everyday lives, and explores what they do with them. The study also aims to investigate the conditions and possibilities of local literacies, exploring children’s meaning-making, identity-making and literacy learning through texts. By using an ethnographic approach involving participant observations, group and individual interviews, surveys and photographs, extended empirical data have been collected.</p><p>Theoretically and in analysing empirical material, the study draws on research from New Literacy Studies and critical literacy. Concepts from the Four Resources Model (Luke &amp; Freebody, 1999) as well as literary envisioning (Langer, 1995, 2011) and hermeneutic perspectives (Gadamer, 1975; Ricoeur, 1984, 1982) have inspired the analysis of the empirical material. The outcomes of the study may be used as a basis for the educational development of literacy learning during the middle school years 3–5.</p><p>The repertoire of texts outside of school can be described as multi-faceted and multimodal and involves a massive amount of information. At the same time, inside school, major emphasis is put on formal training in skills such as spelling and grammar, while the repertoires of coding, functional use, meaning making and the critique of texts are altogether unorchestrated.</p><p>The overall conclusion of the thesis is that literacy education must create opportunities for children to develop and build on their chronological memories of books, films, computer games and chatting on the Internet, so that they can view themselves as readers, meaning-makers and citizens that are able to critique, question, change and redesign texts.</p>
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10.
  • Wannberg, Gudmund, et al. (författare)
  • EISCAT_3D - a next-generation European radar system for upper atmosphere and geospace research
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radio Science Bulletin. - 1024-4530. ; :332, s. 75-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The EISCAT Scientifi c Association, together with a number of collaborating institutions, has recently completed a feasibility and design study for an enhanced performance research radar facility to replace the existing EISCAT UHF and VHF systems. This study was supported by EU Sixth-Framework funding. The new radar retains the powerful multi-static geometry of the EISCAT UHF, but will employ phased arrays, direct-sampling receivers, and digital beamforming and beam steering. Design goals include, inter alia, a tenfold improvement in temporal and spatial resolution, an extension of the instantaneous measurement of full-vector ionospheric drift velocities from a single point to the entire altitude range of the radar, and an imaging capability to resolve small-scale structures. Prototype receivers and beamformers are currently being tested on a 48-element, 224 MHz array (the "Demonstrator") erected at the Kiruna EISCAT site, using the EISCAT VHF transmitter as an illuminator.</p>
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