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Sökning: WFRF:(Häggman Michael)

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  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 370:10, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRadical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. MethodsBetween 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy and followed them through the end of 2012. The primary end points in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) were death from any cause, death from prostate cancer, and the risk of metastases. Secondary end points included the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy. ResultsDuring 23.2 years of follow-up, 200 of 347 men in the surgery group and 247 of the 348 men in the watchful-waiting group died. Of the deaths, 63 in the surgery group and 99 in the watchful-waiting group were due to prostate cancer; the relative risk was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.77; P=0.001), and the absolute difference was 11.0 percentage points (95% CI, 4.5 to 17.5). The number needed to treat to prevent one death was 8. One man died after surgery in the radical-prostatectomy group. Androgen-deprivation therapy was used in fewer patients who underwent prostatectomy (a difference of 25.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 17.7 to 32.3). The benefit of surgery with respect to death from prostate cancer was largest in men younger than 65 years of age (relative risk, 0.45) and in those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (relative risk, 0.38). However, radical prostatectomy was associated with a reduced risk of metastases among older men (relative risk, 0.68; P=0.04). ConclusionsExtended follow-up confirmed a substantial reduction in mortality after radical prostatectomy; the number needed to treat to prevent one death continued to decrease when the treatment was modified according to age at diagnosis and tumor risk. A large proportion of long-term survivors in the watchful-waiting group have not required any palliative treatment. (Funded by the Swedish Cancer Society and others.) The randomized Swedish trial of prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in disease detected mainly clinically (not by PSA screening) continues to show a benefit for early prostatectomy. The number of men younger than 65 needed to treat to prevent one death is now four. The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4), a randomized trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in men with localized prostate cancer diagnosed before the era of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, showed a survival benefit of radical prostatectomy as compared with observation at 15 years of follow-up.(1) By contrast, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in the early era of PSA testing, showed that radical prostatectomy did not significantly reduce prostate cancer-specific or overall mortality after 12 years.(2) PSA screening profoundly changes the clinical domain of study. Among other considerations, the substantial additional lead time ...
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy versus Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 364:18, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDIn 2008, we reported that radical prostatectomy, as compared with watchful waiting, reduces the rate of death from prostate cancer. After an additional 3 years of follow-up, we now report estimated 15-year results.METHODSFrom October 1989 through February 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy. Follow-up was complete through December 2009, with histopathological review of biopsy and radical-prostatectomy specimens and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model.RESULTSDuring a median of 12.8 years, 166 of the 347 men in the radical-prostatectomy group and 201 of the 348 in the watchful-waiting group died (P=0.007). In the case of 55 men assigned to surgery and 81 men assigned to watchful waiting, death was due to prostate cancer. This yielded a cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer at 15 years of 14.6% and 20.7%, respectively (a difference of 6.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 12.0), and a relative risk with surgery of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.87; P=0.01). The survival benefit was similar before and after 9 years of follow-up, was observed also among men with low-risk prostate cancer, and was confined to men younger than 65 years of age. The number needed to treat to avert one death was 15 overall and 7 for men younger than 65 years of age. Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had a risk of death from prostate cancer that was 7 times that of men without extracapsular tumor growth (relative risk, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.6 to 18.4).CONCLUSIONSRadical prostatectomy was associated with a reduction in the rate of death from prostate cancer. Men with extracapsular tumor growth may benefit from adjuvant local or systemic treatment.
  • Donovan, Michael J., et al. (författare)
  • Personalized prediction of tumor response and cancer progression on prostate needle biopsy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - 0022-5347 .- 1527-3792. ; 182:1, s. 125-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To our knowledge in patients with prostate cancer there are no available tests except clinical variables to determine the likelihood of disease progression. We developed a patient specific, biology driven tool to predict outcome at diagnosis. We also investigated whether biopsy androgen receptor levels predict a durable response to therapy after secondary treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated paraffin embedded prostate needle biopsy tissue from 1,027 patients with cT1c-T3 prostate cancer treated with surgery and followed a median of 8 years. Machine learning was done to integrate clinical data with biopsy quantitative biometric features. Multivariate models were constructed to predict disease progression with the C index to estimate performance. RESULTS: In a training set of 686 patients (total of 87 progression events) 3 clinical and 3 biopsy tissue characteristics were identified to predict clinical progression within 8 years after prostatectomy with 78% sensitivity, 69% specificity, a C index of 0.74 and a HR of 5.12. Validation in an independent cohort of 341 patients (total of 44 progression events) yielded 76% sensitivity, 64% specificity, a C index of 0.73 and a HR of 3.47. Increased androgen receptor in tumor cells in the biopsy highly significantly predicted resistance to therapy, ie androgen ablation with or without salvage radiotherapy, and clinical failure (p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Morphometry reliably classifies Gleason pattern 3 tumors. When combined with biomarker data, it adds to the hematoxylin and eosin analysis, and prostate specific antigen values currently used to assess outcome at diagnosis. Biopsy androgen receptor levels predict the likelihood of a response to therapy after recurrence and may guide future treatment decisions.
  • Pili, Roberto, et al. (författare)
  • Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tasquinimod in Men With Minimally Symptomatic Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 29:30, s. 4022-4028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The activity of the novel antitumor agent tasquinimod (TASQ) with S100A9 as a molecular target was investigated in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and minimal symptoms.Patients and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial in men assigned (at a ratio of two to one) to either oral once-daily TASQ 0.25 mg/d escalating to 1.0 mg/d over 4 weeks or placebo. The primary end point was the proportion of patients without disease progression at 6 months, defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Group, Prostate Cancer Working Group (PCWG2), or pain criteria, excluding prostate-specific antigen.Results: Two hundred one men (134 assigned to TASQ; 67 to placebo) were evaluable, and baseline characteristics were well balanced. Six-month progression-free proportions for TASQ and placebo groups were 69% and 37%, respectively (P < .001), and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.6 versus 3.3 months (P = .0042). In PCWG2 CRPC clinical subgroups, PFS in months was as follows: nodal metastases, 6.1 versus 3.1; bone metastases, 8.8 versus 3.4; and visceral metastases, 6.0 versus 3.0 for patients receiving TASQ versus placebo, respectively. Bone alkaline phosphatase levels were stabilized in the TASQ group, whereas the impact on PSA kinetics was less pronounced. Adverse events (AEs) occurring more frequently in the TASQ arm included GI disorders, fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and elevations of pancreatic and inflammatory biomarkers. Grade 3 to 4 AEs, including asymptomatic elevations of laboratory parameters, were reported in 40% of patients receiving TASQ versus 10% receiving placebo; deep vein thrombosis (4% v 0%) was more common in the TASQ arm.Conclusion: TASQ significantly slowed progression and improved PFS in patients with metastatic CRPC with an acceptable AE profile.
  • Acosta Ruiz, Vanessa, et al. (författare)
  • Periprocedural outcome after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy versus radiofrequency ablation for T1 renal tumors: : A modified R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score adjusted comparison.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - 0284-1851 .- 1600-0455. ; 60:2, s. 260-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Comparable oncological outcomes have been seen after surgical nephrectomy and thermal ablation of renal tumors recently. However, periprocedural outcome needs to be assessed for aiding treatment decision.Purpose: To compare efficacy rates and periprocedural outcome (technical success, session time, hospitalization time, and complications) after renal tumor treatment with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA).Material and Methods: The initial experience with 49 (treated with LPN) and 84 (treated with RFA) consecutive patients for a single renal tumor (diameter ≤ 5 cm, limited to the kidney) during 2007-2014 was evaluated. Patient and tumor characteristics, efficacy rates, and periprocedural outcome were collected retrospectively. The stratified Mantel Haenzel and Van Elteren tests, adjusted for tumor complexity (with the modified R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score [m-RNS]), were used to assess differences in treatment outcomes.Results: Primary efficacy rate was 98% for LPN and 85.7% for RFA; secondary efficacy rate was 93.9% for LPN and 95.2% for RFA; and technical success rate was 87.8% for LPN and 100% for RFA. Median session (m-RNS adjusted P < 0.001; LPN 215 min, RFA 137 min) and median hospitalization time were longer after LPN (m-RNS adjusted P < 0.001; LPN 5 days, RFA 2 days). Side effects were uncommon (LPN 2%, RFA 4.8%). Complications were more frequent after LPN (m-RNS adjusted P < 0.001; LPN 42.9%, RFA 10.7%).Conclusion: Both methods achieved equivalent secondary efficacy rates. RFA included several treatment sessions, but session and hospitalization times were shorter, and complications were less frequent than for LPN. The differences remained after adjustment for renal tumor complexity.
  • Al-Mashhadi, Ammar, et al. (författare)
  • Changes of arterial pressure following relief of obstruction in adults with hydronephrosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 123:4, s. 216-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: As much as 20% of all cases of hypertension are associated with kidney malfunctions. We have previously demonstrated in animals and in pediatric patients that hydronephrosis causes hypertension, which was attenuated by surgical relief of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate: (1) the proposed link between hydronephrosis, due to UPJ obstruction, and elevated arterial pressure in adults; and (2) if elevated blood pressure in patients with hydronephrosis might be another indication for surgery.Materials and methods: Medical records of 212 patients undergoing surgical management of hydronephrosis, due to UPJ obstruction, between 2000 and 2016 were assessed. After excluding patients with confounding conditions and treatments, paired arterial pressures (i.e. before/after surgery) were compared in 49 patients (35 years old; 95% CI 29–39). Split renal function was evaluated by using mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography before surgical management of the hydronephrotic kidney.Results: Systolic (−11 mmHg; 95% CI 6–15 mmHg), diastolic (−8 mmHg; 95% CI 4–11 mmHg), and mean arterial (-9 mmHg; 95% CI 6–12) pressures were significantly reduced after relief of the obstruction (p < 0.001). Split renal function of the hydronephrotic kidney was 39% (95% CI 37–41). No correlations were found between MAG3 and blood pressure level before surgery or between MAG3 and the reduction of blood pressure after surgical management of the UPJ obstruction.Conclusions: In adults with hydronephrosis, blood pressure was reduced following relief of the obstruction. Our findings suggest that elevated arterial pressure should be taken into account as an indication to surgically correct hydronephrosis.
  • Armstrong, A J, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Survival and Biomarker Correlates of Tasquinimod Efficacy in a Multicenter Randomized Study of Men with Minimally Symptomatic Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 19:24, s. 6891-6901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Tasquinimod (Active Biotech) is an oral immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-metastatic agent that delayed metastatic disease progression in a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we report long-term survival with biomarker correlates from this trial.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two hundred and one (134 tasquinimod and 67 placebo) men with mCRPC were evaluated. Forty-one men randomized to placebo crossed over to tasquinimod. Survival data were collected with a median follow-up time of 37 months. Exploratory biomarker studies at baseline and over time were collected to evaluate potential mechanism-based correlates with tasquinimod efficacy including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).RESULTS: With 111 mortality events, median OS was 33.4 months for tasquinimod versus 30.4 months for placebo overall, and 34.2 versus 27.1 months in men with bone metastases (n = 136), respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated an adjusted HR of 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.78; P = 0.001] for PFS and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.42-0.97; P = 0.034) for OS, favoring tasquinimod. Time-to-symptomatic progression was improved with tasquinimod (P = 0.039, HR = 0.42). Toxicities tended to be mild in nature and improved over time. Biomarker analyses suggested a favorable impact on bone alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) over time and a transient induction of inflammatory biomarkers, VEGF-A, and thrombospondin-1 levels with tasquinimod. Baseline levels of thrombospondin-1 less than the median were predictive of treatment benefit.CONCLUSIONS: The survival observed in this trial of men with minimally symptomatic mCRPC suggests that the prolongation in PFS with tasquinimod may lead to a survival advantage in this setting, particularly among men with skeletal metastases, and has a favorable risk:benefit ratio. 
  • Berglund, Gunilla, et al. (författare)
  • "Between Men" : A psychosocial rehabilitation programme for men with prostate cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 46:1, s. 83-89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychosocial rehabilitation on newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The “Between Men” programme consisted of seven weekly sessions of physical training (Phys) alone, information (Info) alone or physical training plus information (PhysInfo). After diagnoses, patients (n =211) were consecutively included, stratified and randomised to one of four groups: Phys, Info, PhysInfo or standard care control (C). A nurse specialised in urology, an urologist and a physiotherapist performed the interventions. Patients were followed up during one year with mailed standardised questionnaires. It could not be assumed that the “Between Men” programme had any effect on patients’ anxiety and depression (HADS). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was associated with stage of disease but not with psychosocial intervention. Thus, Physical Function (PF), Role Function (RF) and Fatigue (FA) were inferior among patients with, than without, metastases of prostate cancer both at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. This randomized study did not demonstrate any significant effect of psychosocial rehabilitation among prostate cancer patients. Considering the low rate (1/2), of included/eligible patients a less complicated design (intervention versus control) would have been preferred in order to increase power.
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