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Sökning: WFRF:(Hack L. M.)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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5.
  • Pijnenburg, Yolande A L, et al. (författare)
  • CSF neurofilaments in frontotemporal dementia compared with early onset Alzheimer's disease and controls.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 23:4, s. 225-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is pathologically heterogeneous, sometimes revealing intraneuronal inclusions of neurofilaments. We therefore measured CSF neurofilament profiles in patients with FTD, patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease (EAD) and healthy control subjects to explore the discriminative potential of CSF neurofilaments compared with the existing CSF biomarkers amyloid-beta(1-42), tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine-181. METHODS: CSF levels of light chain, heavy chain and hyperphosphorylated heavy chain neurofilaments (NfL, t-NfH and P-NfH) were compared between 17 subjects with FTD, 20 with EAD and 25 cognitively healthy controls. RESULTS: A subgroup of FTD patients had remarkably high CSF levels of both NfL and NfH. The degree of NfH phosphorylation was increased in FTD compared to both other groups. The levels of CSF NfL were significantly higher in EAD compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Differences in CSF biomarker profiles might reflect differential involvement of neurofilaments and tau in FTD and EAD. The subgroup of FTD patients with high CSF neurofilament levels may have a different neuropathological substrate and future studies addressing this specific issue are needed.</p>
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6.
  • Welch, Robert D, et al. (författare)
  • Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B to Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurotrauma. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1557-9042. ; 33:2, s. 203-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Head Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multi-center observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein [GFAP], Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6-hours of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury), was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value > 40 pg/ml. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/ml) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/ml). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve; 0.79 (95% CI; 0.70 to 0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71 to 0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65 to 0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p=0.21 and p=0.77 respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values < 40 pg/ml could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.
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