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1.
  • Shrestha, S., et al. (författare)
  • The use of ICD codes to identify IBD subtypes and phenotypes of the Montreal classification in the Swedish National Patient Register
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 55:4, s. 430-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Whether data on International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-codes from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) correctly correspond to subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and phenotypes of the Montreal classification scheme among patients with prevalent disease is unknown. Materials and methods: We obtained information on IBD subtypes and phenotypes from the medical records of 1403 patients with known IBD who underwent biological treatment at ten Swedish hospitals and retrieved information on their IBD-associated diagnostic codes from the NPR. We used previously described algorithms to define IBD subtypes and phenotypes. Finally, we compared these register-generated subtypes and phenotypes with the corresponding information from the medical records and calculated positive predictive values (PPV) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Among patients with clinically confirmed disease and diagnostic listings of IBD in the NPR (N = 1401), the PPV was 97 (96-99)% for Crohn's disease, 98 (97-100)% for ulcerative colitis, and 8 (4-11)% for IBD-unclassified. The overall accuracy for age at diagnosis was 95% (when defined as A1, A2, or A3). Examining the validity of codes representing disease phenotype, the PPV was 36 (32-40)% for colonic Crohn's disease (L2), 61 (56-65)% for non-stricturing/non-penetrating Crohn's disease behaviour (B1) and 83 (78-87)% for perianal disease. Correspondingly, the PPV was 80 (71-89)% for proctitis (E1)/left-sided colitis (E2) in ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Among people with known IBD, the NPR is a reliable source of data to classify most subtypes of prevalent IBD, even though misclassification commonly occurred in Crohn's disease location and behaviour and also among IBD-unclassified patients.
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2.
  • Everhov, Åsa H., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and Treatment of Patients Diagnosed With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases at 60 Years or Older in Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 154:3, s. 518-528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is increasing among elderly persons (60 years or older). We performed a nationwide population-based study to estimate incidence and treatment.METHODS: We identified all incident IBD cases in Sweden, from 2006 through 2013, using national registers, and up to 10 matched population comparator subjects. We collected data on the patients' health care contacts and estimated incidence rates, health service burden, pharmacologic treatments, extra-intestinal manifestations, and surgeries in relation to age of IBD onset (pediatric, less than 18 years; adults, 18-59 years; elderly, 60 years or older).RESULTS: Of 27,834 persons diagnosed with incident IBD, 6443 (23%) had a first diagnosis of IBD at 60 years or older, corresponding to an incidence rate of 35/100,000 person-years (10/100,000 person-years for Crohn's disease, 19 /100,000 person-years for ulcerative colitis, and 5/100,000 person-years for IBD unclassified). During a median follow-up period of 4.2 years (range 0-9 years), elderly patients had less IBD-specific outpatient health care but more IBD-related hospitalizations and overall health care use than adult patients with IBD. Compared to patients with pediatric or adult onset, elderly patients used fewer biologics and immunomodulators, but more systemic corticosteroids. Occurrence of extra-intestinal manifestations was similar in elderly and adult patients, but bowel surgery was more common in the elderly (13% after 5 years vs 10% in adults) (P<.001). The absolute risk of bowel surgery was higher in the elderly than in the general population, but in relative terms, the risk increase was larger in younger age groups.CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide cohort study in Sweden, we associated diagnosis of IBD at age 60 years or older with a lower use of biologics and immunomodulators but higher absolute risk of bowel surgery, compared to diagnosis at a younger age. The large differences in pharmacological treatment of adults and elderly patients are not necessarily due to a milder course of disease and warrant further investigation.
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3.
  • Everhov, Åsa H., et al. (författare)
  • Sick Leave and Disability Pension in Prevalent Patients With Crohn's Disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 12:12, s. 1418-1428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Crohn's disease may affect the ability to work and lead to permanent disability. We aimed to investigate work loss in prevalent patients.Methods: We identified patients with Crohn's disease and general population comparators matched by sex, birth year, healthcare region and education. We assessed days of sick leave and disability pension retrieved from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and estimated the absolute and relative risk of receiving disability pension [minimum 25% work impairment].Results: In 2014, the 20638 Crohn's disease patients [median age 44 years] had more than twice as many mean lost workdays [disability pension: 44; sick leave: 19] as the 102038 comparators [disability pension: 20; sick leave: 8], mean difference 35 days [95% confidence interval 33-37]. However, the majority had no lost workdays [68% of patients and 85% of comparators]. The proportion of patients receiving disability pension was 15% (6.5% in the comparators, risk ratio 2.34 [2.25-2.43]) and was higher in all subgroups, especially in female patients [28% vs 13% in the comparators], in those with ≤9 years of education [41% vs 23%] and in ages 60-64 years [46% vs 25%]. The relative risk of disability pension within the patient cohort [adjusted for age, sex, region and education] was higher in patients with complicated disease behaviour, extraintestinal manifestations, need of surgery or treatment with biologics. The differences between patients and comparators remained when comparing other calendar years [2006-2013].Conclusion: Work loss was found in approximately one-third of patients. The mean number of lost workdays was twice as high as in the comparators.
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4.
  • Everhov, Åsa H., et al. (författare)
  • Work Loss Before and After Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 25:7, s. 1237-1247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to examine work loss in patients with Crohn's disease.Methods: Using nationwide registers, we identified incident patients with Crohn's disease (2007-2010) and population comparator subjects without inflammatory bowel disease, matched by age, sex, calendar year, health care region, and education level. We assessed the number of lost workdays due to sick leave and disability pension from 5 years before to 5 years after first diagnosis of Crohn's disease or end of follow-up (September 30, 2015).Results: Among the 2015 incident Crohn's disease patients (median age, 35 years; 50% women), both the proportion with work loss and the mean annual number of lost workdays were larger 5 years before diagnosis (25%; mean, 45 days) than in the 10,067 comparators (17%; mean, 29 days). Increased work loss was seen during the year of diagnosis, after which it declined to levels similar to before diagnosis. Of all patients, 75% had no work loss 24-12 months before diagnosis. Of them, 84% had full work ability also 12-24 months after diagnosis. In patients with total work loss (8.3% of all) before diagnosis, 83% did not work after. Among those with full work ability before diagnosis, the absolute risk of having total work loss after diagnosis was 1.4% (0.43% in the comparators). Our results were consistent across several sensitivity analyses using alternative definitions for date of diagnosis.Conclusions: Patients with Crohn's disease had increased work loss several years before diagnosis, possibly explained by comorbidity or by diagnostic delay.
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5.
  • Jakobsson, G. L., et al. (författare)
  • Validating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Quality Register for IBD (SWIBREG)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 52:2, s. 216-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Both the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) and the Swedish Quality Register for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, SWIBREG) are important sources of research data and information. However, the validity of a diagnosis of IBD in these registers is unknown. Methods: Medical charts of 129 randomly selected patients from the NPR and 165 patients registered both in SWIBREG and the NPR were reviewed. Patients were classified according to standardized criteria for ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), or IBD unclassified (IBD-U). Positive predictive values (PPVs) for UC, CD, IBD-U (only SWIBREG), or having any form of IBD were then calculated. Results: For cases with >= 2 diagnoses of IBD in the NPR (hospitalizations or non-primary care outpatient visits), the PPV was 93% (95% CI: 87-97) for any IBD, 79% (66-88) for UC and 72% (60-82) for CD. In UC patients with >= 2 UC diagnoses but never a CD diagnosis, the PPV increased to 90% (77-97). The PPV for CD in patients with >= 2 CD diagnoses but never a UC diagnosis was 81% (67-91)). Combining data from SWIBREG (>= 1 record) and the NPR (>= 1 record), the PPV was 99% for any IBD (97-100), 96% (89-99) for UC, and 90% (82-96) for CD. Conclusion: The validity of the UC, CD, and IBD diagnoses is high in the NPR but even higher when cases were identified both in SWIBREG and the NPR. These results underline the need for a well-functioning Swedish Quality Register for IBD as a complement to the NPR.
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6.
  • Svensson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Validating microscopic colitis (MC) in Swedish pathology registers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis (MC), encompassing collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), is a diagnosis which relies on histopathologic criteria. This report examines the validity of having a diagnosis of MC in Swedish pathology registers.METHODS: We reviewed patient charts from 215 randomly selected individuals from 15 pathology departments in five healthcare regions in Sweden with a relevant histopathology code for MC on colon biopsies. Information on clinical symptoms and laboratory data were obtained from medical chart review. We obtained sufficient data on 211 individuals for calculating positive predictive values (PPVs) for MC.RESULTS: In total, 200/211 patients with a histopathology diagnosis of MC were confirmed as also having a clinical diagnosis of MC after chart review, yielding a PPV of 95% (95%CI =91-97%). The PPV for CC was 95% (95%CI =87-98%) and 85% for LC (95%CI =78-90%). The median age at biopsy was 67 years (range 17-90 years), and 72% (n = 154) were women. The most common symptoms in patients with MC histopathology were diarrhea (96% of patients), weight loss (24%) and abdominal pain (13%). Four percent (4/111) of patients with available data on stool culture were positive for gastrointestinal pathogens (none had Clostridium difficile). In 81 patients with available celiac serology, five (6%) were positive. Twenty-six percent of all patients had at least one other autoimmune disease, the most frequent being hypothyroidism (8%) and celiac disease (6%).CONCLUSIONS: This study found a high validity for MC as recorded in Swedish pathology registers.
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7.
  • Amcoff, Karin, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Concordance in Anti-OmpC and Anti-I2 Indicate the Influence of Genetic Predisposition : Results of a European Study of Twins with Crohn's Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 1873-9946 .- 1876-4479. ; 10:6, s. 695-702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: An adaptive immunological response to microbial antigens has been observed in Crohn's disease (CD). Intriguingly, this serological response precedes the diagnosis in some patients and has also been observed in healthy relatives. We aimed to determine whether genetic factors are implicated in this response in a CD twin cohort.Methods: In total, 82 twin pairs (Leuven n = 13, Maastricht n = 8, Örebro n = 61) took part: 81 pairs with CD (concordant monozygotic n = 16, discordant monozygotic n = 22, concordant dizygotic n = 3, discordant dizygotic n = 40) and 1 monozygotic pair with both CD and ulcerative colitis. Serology for Pseudomonas fluorescens-related protein (anti-I2), Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC), CBir1flagellin (anti-CBir1) and antibodies to oligomannan (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody [ASCA]) was determined by standardized enzyme-linked immunoassay.Results: All markers were more often present in CD twins than in their healthy twin siblings. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), agreements in concentrations of anti-OmpC and anti-I2 were observed in discordant monozygotic but not in discordant dizygotic twin pairs with CD (anti-OmpC, ICC 0.80 and -0.02, respectively) and (anti-I2, ICC 0.56 and 0.05, respectively). In contrast, no agreements were found in anti-CBir, immunoglobulin (Ig) G ASCA and ASCA IgA.Conclusions: We show that anti-I2 and anti-CBir1 statuses have specificity for CD and confirm previous reported specificities for anti-OmpC and ASCA. Based on quantitative analyses and observed ICCs, genetics seems to predispose to the anti-OmpC and anti-I2 response but less to ASCA and anti-CBir1 responses.
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8.
  • Angelison, L., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcome of infliximab treatment in chronic active ulcerative colitis : a Swedish multicentre study of 250 patients
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0269-2813 .- 1365-2036. ; 45:4, s. 519-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Real-life long-term data on infliximab treatment in ulcerative colitis are limited.Aim: To study the long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab in chronic active ulcerative colitis and possible predictors of colectomy and response were also examined.Methods: A retrospective multi-centre study of infliximab treatment in 250 patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis with inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, ambulatory treated, steroid-dependent or intolerant and/or immunomodulator refractory or intolerant.Results: Steroid-free clinical remission was achieved by 123/250 patients (49.2%) at 12 months and in 126/250 patients at a median follow-up of 2.9 years (50.4%). Primary response at 3 months was achieved by 190/250 (76.0%) patients and associated with a high probability of response 168/190 (88.4%) at 12 months and 143/190 (75.3%) at follow-up. Long-term rate of colectomy in primary responders was 6/190 (3.2%) at 12 months and 27/190 (14.2%) at last follow-up. Failure to achieve response at 3 months was associated with a high risk of subsequent colectomy, 29/60 (48.3%) at 12 months and 41/60 (68.3%) at follow-up. Response at 12 months was associated with a low risk of subsequent colectomy, 14/181 (7.7%) compared with non-response 19/34 (55.9%) (P < 0.0001). Non-response at 3 months was an independent predictor of subsequent colectomy (HR = 9.40, 95% CI = 5.10-17.35, P < 0.001). Concomitant azathioprine therapy did not influence outcome in terms of colectomy.Conclusions: Long-term efficacy of infliximab treatment in chronic active ulcerative colitis is excellent especially in patients who respond to induction treatment. Conversely, non-response at 3 months predicts a poor outcome, with a high risk of subsequent colectomy.
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9.
  • Axelrad, Jordan E., et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of small bowel cancer : a binational population-based cohort study from Denmark and Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with increased risk of small bowel cancer (SBC), but previous studies have been small. We aimed to examine the risk of incident SBC and death from SBC in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).DESIGN: In a binational, population-based cohort study from Sweden and Denmark of patients with IBD during 1969-2017 and matched reference individuals from the general population, we evaluated the risk of incident SBC and death from SBC. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs).RESULTS: We identified 161 896 individuals with IBD (CD: 47 370; UC: 97 515; unclassified IBD: 17 011). During follow-up, 237 cases of SBC were diagnosed in patients with IBD (CD: 24.4/100 000 person-years; UC: 5.88/100 000 person-years), compared with 640 cases in reference individuals (2.81/100 000 person-years and 3.32/100 000 person-years, respectively). This corresponded to one extra case of SBC in 385 patients with CD and one extra case in 500 patients with UC, followed up for 10 years. The aHR for incident SBC was 9.09 (95% CI 7.34 to 11.3) in CD and 1.85 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.39) in UC. Excluding the first year after an IBD diagnosis, the aHRs for incident SBC decreased to 4.96 in CD and 1.69 in UC. Among patients with CD, HRs were independently highest for recently diagnosed, childhood-onset, ileal and stricturing CD. The relative hazard of SBC-related death was increased in both patients with CD (aHR 6.59, 95% CI 4.74 to 9.15) and patients with UC (aHR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.32).CONCLUSION: SBC and death from SBC were more common in patients with IBD, particularly among patients with CD, although absolute risks were low.
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10.
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