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  • Gustafsson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Boreal forest surface parameterization in the ECMWF model - 1D test with NOPEX long-term data
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied meteorology (1988). - : American Meteorological Society. - 0894-8763 .- 1520-0450. ; 42:1, s. 95-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of the present study was to assess the performance and recent improvements of the land surface scheme used operationally in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in a Scandinavian boreal forest climate/ecosystem. The previous (the 1999 scheme of P. Viterbo and A. K. Betts) and the new (Tiled ECMWF Surface Scheme for Exchange Processes over Land, TESSEL) surface schemes were validated by single-column runs against data from NOPEX (Northern Hemisphere Climate-Processes Land-Surface Experiment). Driving and validation datasets were prepared for a 3-yr period (1994-96). The new surface scheme, with separate surface energy balances for subgrid fractions (tiling), improved predictions of seasonal as well as diurnal variation in surface energy fluxes in comparison with the old scheme. Simulated wintertime evaporation improved significantly as a consequence of the introduced additional aerodynamic resistance for evaporation from snow lying under high vegetation. Simulated springtime evaporation also improved because the limitation of transpiration in frozen soils was now accounted for. However, downward sensible heat flux was still underestimated during winter, especially at nighttime, whereas soil temperatures were underestimated in winter and overestimated in summer. The new scheme also underestimated evaporation during dry periods in summer, whereas soil moisture was overestimated. Sensitivity tests showed that further improvements of simulated surface heat fluxes and soil temperatures could be obtained by calibration of parameters governing the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere and the ground heat flux, and parameters governing the water uptake by the vegetation. Model performance also improved when the seasonal variation in vegetation properties was included.
  • Braniste, Viorica, et al. (författare)
  • The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 6:263, s. 263ra158-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota-BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.
  • Cervenka, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Support for dopaminergic hypoactivity in restless legs syndrome : a PET study on D2-receptor binding
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Brain. - Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychol Sect, Karolinska Inst, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Div Clin Pharmacol, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurol, Stockholm, Sweden. GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Translat Med & Genet, Cambridge, England. Univ Manchester, Wolfson Mol Imaging Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England. GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Neurol Discovery Med, Harlow, Essex, England. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 129, s. 2017-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical observations support a central role of the dopamine system in restless legs syndrome (RLS) but previous imaging studies of striatal dopamine D2-receptors have yielded inconclusive results. Extrastriatal dopaminergic function has hitherto not been investigated. Sixteen RLS patients naive to dopaminergic drugs and sixteen matched control subjects were examined with PET. [C-11]Raclopride and [C-11]FLB 457 were used to estimate D2-receptor availability in striatum and extrastriatal regions, respectively. Examinations were performed both in the morning (starting between 10:00 and 12:00 h) and evening (starting at 18:00 h). Measures were taken to monitor and control for head movement during data acquisition. In the striatum, patients had significantly higher [C-11]raclopride binding potential (BP) values than controls. In extrastriatal regions, [C-11]FLB 457 BP was higher in patients than controls, and in the regional analysis the difference was statistically significant in subregions of thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex. The diurnal variability in BP with [C-11]FLB 457 and [C-11]raclopride was within the previously reported test-retest reproducibility for both radioligands. The study supports involvement of the dopamine system in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions in the pathophysiology of RLS. The brain regions where differences in D2-receptor binding were shown are implicated in the regulation of affective and motivational aspects of sensory processing, suggesting a possible pathway for sensory symptoms in RLS. Increased D2-receptor availability in RLS may correspond to higher receptor densities or lower levels of endogenous dopamine. Both interpretations are consistent with the hypothesis of hypoactive dopaminergic neurotransmission in RLS, as increased receptor levels can be owing to receptor upregulation in response to low levels of endogenous dopamine. The results do not support variations in dopamine D2-receptor availability as a correlate to the diurnal rhythm of RLS symptoms.
  • Comley, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • A Comparison of Gray Matter Density in Restless Legs Syndrome Patients and Matched Controls Using Voxel-Based Morphometry
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroimaging. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1051-2284 .- 1552-6569. ; 22:1, s. 28-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder the pathophysiology of which is incompletely understood. Four studies have examined structural differences between the brains of RLS patients and healthy controls, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). All 4 studies have provided different results. METHODS Optimized VBM was used to search for structural differences in gray matter density. Sixteen RLS patients naive to dopaminergic drugs and 16 age-and sex-matched controls received structural T1-weighted MR scans. Structural data were analyzed using FSL-VBM. RESULTS No difference in gray matter density was detected between the two groups (voxel-wise significance: no significant voxels at P = .89 (whole brain Family Wise Error (FWE) corrected); no significant voxels at P < .05 (whole brain False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected; smallest achievable FDR threshold .99). CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION The present study did not replicate (confirm) previous findings of structural brain changes in RLS, but instead supported the findings of a recent study showing a lack of gray matter alteration in an elderly RLS population. More specifically, the results do not support neuronal loss as an underlying disease mechanism in RLS. Potential limitations in the application of VBM are also discussed.
  • Gong, Lebing, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity of the Penman–Monteith reference evapotranspiration to key climatic variables in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) basin
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology. - 0022-1694 .- 1879-2707. ; 329, s. 620-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensitivity analysis is important in understanding the relative importance of climatic variables to the variation of reference evapotranspiration (ETref). In this study, a non-dimensional relative sensitivity coefficient was employed to predict responses of ETref to perturbations of four climatic variables in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) basin. ETref was estimated with the FAO-56 Penman–Monteith equation. A 41-year historical dataset of daily air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and daily sunshine duration at 150 national meteorological observatory stations was used in the analysis. Results show that the response of ETref can be precisely predicted under perturbation of relative humidity or shortwave radiation by their sensitivity coefficients; the predictive power under perturbations of air temperature and wind speed depended on the magnitude of the perturbation, season and region. The prediction errors were much smaller than the seasonal and regional variation of their sensitivity coefficients. The sensitivity coefficient could also be used to predict the response of ETref to co-perturbation of several variables. The accuracy of the prediction increases from the lower to the upper region. Spatial variations of long-term average monthly and yearly sensitivity coefficients were obtained by interpolation of station estimates. In general, relative humidity was the most sensitive variable, followed by shortwave radiation, air temperature and wind speed. The actual rank of the four climatic variables in terms of their sensitivity varied with season and region. The large spatial variability of the sensitivity coefficients of all the climatic variables in the middle and lower regions of the basin was to a large extent determined by the distinct wind-speed patterns in those two regions.
  • Halldin, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • NOPEX - a northern hemisphere climate processes land surface experiment
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology. - 0022-1694 .- 1879-2707. ; 212-213, s. 172-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interface between land surfaces and the atmosphere is a key area in climate research, where lack of basic knowledge prevents us from reducing the considerable uncertainties about predicted changes. Boreal forests play an important, but not well known, role in the global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. NOPEX (a NOrthern hemisphere climate Processes land surface EXperiment) is devoted to the study of land surface-atmosphere interaction in a northern European forest-dominated landscape. The main NOPEX region represents the southern edge of the boreal zone. It consists of a highly heterogeneous landscape, with forests, mires, agricultural land and lakes. A second study site, in northern Finland, representing the northern edge of the boreal zone, will be introduced into NOPEX in connection with its coming winter-time field activities. Field activities, dominating the initial phase of NOPEX, are conceived to strike a balance between the need to cover multi-annual observations and the resources required to carry out measurements covering all relevant spatial scales. The long-term data collection activities, the Continuous Climate Monitoring (CCM), form the backbone of the field programme. A suite of Concentrated Field Efforts (CFEs) covering periods of summer, spring and winter brings together scientists from more then 20 countries during month-long campaigns. CFEs have been carried out in May-June 1994 and April-July 1995. A third, winter-time CFE is planned for 1998-99. The System for Information in NOPEX (SINOP) is the database which forms a backbone for modelling and analysis work, dominating the second stage of NOPEX. A series of PhD courses are run in parallell to the research activities. Analysis and modelling are done in four interacting areas, including local-scale processes, meso-scale surface-atmosphere coupling and remote sensing techniques. The fourth area, regionalization methods, aims at bringing the previous three together in order to provide improved parameterization schemes for exchange of energy, momentum, water and CO2 between land and atmosphere in hydrological and meteorological models from the meso to the global scale. 
  • Lundberg, A, et al. (författare)
  • New approach to the measurement of interception evaporation
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. - 0739-0572 .- 1520-0426. ; 14:5, s. 1023-1035
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation represents an important (sometimes major) part of evapotranspiration in temperate regions. Interception evaporation is an important process where insufficient measurement techniques hamper progress in knowledge and modeling. An ideal technique to study the interception evaporation process should monitor intercepted mass (and its vertical distribution) and interception loss with high accuracy (0.1 mm) and time resolution (1 min), and give correct area estimates. The method should be inexpensive, require minor supervision during extended periods, and work in dense forests. Net precipitation techniques, in which interception evaporation is determined from the difference between gross precipitation (measured with funnels) and throughfall (measured with funnels, troughs, or plastic sheet net-rainfall gauges) fulfill many of the requirements but usually have a too-low accuracy and time resolution for process studies. Precipitation measurements are normally affected by distortion of the wind field around gauges as well as by adhesive and evaporative losses. Throughfall measurements with precipitation funnels, troughs, or plastic sheet net-rainfall gauges, manually emptied or combined with tipping buckets, usually have too-low accuracy and time resolution for process studies and are impaired by adhesive losses. A new loadcell-based system to determine interception evaporation from gross and net precipitation is presented. A weighing gauge with minimal wind loss is used for precipitation, and weighing troughs are used for throughfall measurements. The weighing troughs minimize adhesive-loss errors and react instantaneously. Preliminary results with the method confirm that it can be used for process studies with a high accuracy (0.1 mm) and a high time resolution (1 min).
  • Lundin, Lars-Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous long-term measurements of soil-plant-atmosphere variables at a forest site
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. - 0168-1923 .- 1873-2240. ; 98-99, s. 53-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is a major challenge in modem science to decrease the uncertainty in predictions of global climate change. One of the largest uncertainties in present-day global climate models resides with the understanding of processes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) system. Continuous, long-term data are needed in order to correctly quantify balances of water, energy and CO2 in this system and to correctly model it. It is the objective of this paper to demonstrate how a combined system of existing sensor, computer, and network technologies could be set up to provide continuous and reliable long-term SVAT-process data from a forested site under almost all environmental conditions. The Central Tower Site (CTS) system was set up in 1993-1994 in a 25 m high boreal forest growing on a highly heterogeneous till soil with a high content of stones and blocks. It has successfully monitored relevant states and fluxes in the system, such as atmospheric fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapour and CO2, atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapour, CO2, short-and long-wave radiation, heat storage in soil and trees, sap-dow and a variety of ecophysiological properties, soil-water contents and tensions, and groundwater levels, rainfall and throughfall. System uptime has been more than 90% for most of its components during the first 5 years of operation. Results from the first 5 years of operation include e.g., budgets for energy, water and CO2, information on important but rarely occurring events such as evaporation from snow-covered canopies, and reactions of the forest to extreme drought. The carbon budget shows that the forest may be a sink of carbon although it is still growing. The completeness of the data has made it possible to test the internal consistency of SVAT models. The pioneering set-up at the CTS has been adopted by a large number of SVAT-monitoring sites around the world. Questions concerning tower maintenance, long-term calibration plans, maintenance of sensors and data-collection system, and continuous development of the computer network to keep it up to date are, however, only partly of interest as a research project in itself. It is thus difficult to get it funded from usual research-funding agencies. The full value of data generated by the CTS system can best be appreciated after a decade or more of continuous operation. Main uses of the data would be to evaluate how SVAT models handle the natural variability of climate conditions, quantification of water. carbon and energy budgets during various weather conditions, rind development of new parameterisation schemes in global and regional climate models. 
  • Paul-Visse, Gesine, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular PDGF-BB in Parkinson's disease patients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : Am Soc Clin Investig. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 125:3, s. 1339-1346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND. Recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) reduces Parkinsonian symptoms and increases dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in several animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Effects of rhPDGF-BB are the result of proliferation of ventricular wall progenitor cells and reversed by blocking mitosis. Based on these restorative effects, we assessed the safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) rhPDGF-BB administration in individuals with PD. METHODS. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/IIa study at two clinical centers in Sweden. Twelve patients with moderate PD received rhPDGF-BB via an implanted drug infusion pump and an investigational i.c.v. catheter. Patients were assigned to a dose cohort (0.2, 1.5, or 5 mu g rhPDGF-BB per day) and then randomized to active treatment or placebo (3:1) for a 12-day treatment period. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of i.c.v.-delivered rhPDGF-BB. Secondary outcome assessments included several clinical rating scales and changes in DAT binding. The follow-up period was 85 days. RESULTS. All patients completed the study. There were no unresolved adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients; however, these were unrelated to rhPDGF-BB administration. Secondary outcome parameters did not show dose-dependent changes in clinical rating scales, but there was a positive effect on DAT binding in the right putamen. CONCLUSION. At all doses tested, i.c.v. administration of rhPDGF-BB was well tolerated. Results support further clinical development of rhPDGF-BB for patients with PD.
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