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  • Kokfelt, U, et al. (författare)
  • Ecosystem responses to increased precipitation and permafrost decay in subarctic Sweden inferred from peat and lake sediments
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 15:7, s. 1652-1663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent accelerated decay of discontinuous permafrost at the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has been attributed to increased temperature and snow depth, and has caused expansion of wet minerotrophic areas leading to significant changes in carbon cycling in the mire. In order to track these changes through time and evaluate potential forcing mechanisms, this paper analyses a peat succession and a lake sediment sequence from within the mire, providing a record for the last 100 years, and compares these with monitored climate and active layer thickness data. The peat core was analysed for testate amoebae to reconstruct changes in peatland surface moisture conditions and water table fluctuations. The lake sediment core was analysed by near infrared spectroscopy to infer changes in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the lake-water, and changes in δ13C and C, N and δ15N to track changes in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the influence of diagenetic effects on sediment organic matter, respectively. Results showed that major shifts towards increased peat surface moisture and TOC concentration of the lake-water occurred around 1980, one to two decades earlier than a temperature driven increase in active layer thickness. Comparison with monitored temperature and precipitation from a nearby climate station indicates that this change in peat surface moisture is related to June–September (JJAS) precipitation and that the increase in lake-water TOC concentration reflects an increase in total annual precipitation. A significant depletion in 13C of sediment organic matter in the early 1980s probably reflects the effect of a single or a few consecutive years with anomalously high summer precipitation, resulting in elevated DIC content of the lake water, predominantly originating from increased export and subsequent respiration of organic carbon from the mire. Based on these results, it was not possible to link proxy data obtained on peat and lake-sediment records directly to permafrost decay. Instead our data indicate that increased precipitation and anomalously high rainfall during summers had a significant impact on the mire and the adjacent lake ecosystem. We therefore propose that effects of increased precipitation should be considered when evaluating potential forcing mechanisms of recent changes in carbon cycling in the subarctic.
  • Andren, Elinor, et al. (författare)
  • Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6364 .- 0921-8181. ; 134, s. 41-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A sediment record from a small lake in the north-eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula has been investigated in a multi-proxy study to gain knowledge of Holocene climatic and environmental change. Pollen, diatoms, chironomids and selected geochemical parameters were analysed and the sediment record was dated with radiocarbon. The study shows Holocene changes in the terrestrial vegetation as well as responses of the lake ecosystern to catchment maturity and multiple stressors, such as climate change and volcanic eruptions. Climate change is the major driving force resulting in the recorded environmental changes in the lake, although recurrent tephra deposition events also contributed. The sediment record has an age at the base of about 10,000 cal yrs BP, and during the first 400 years the climate was cold and the lake exhibited extensive ice-cover during winter and relatively low primary production. Soils in the catchment were poor with shrub alder and birches dominating the vegetation surrounding the lake. At about 9600-8900 cal yrs BP the climate was cold and moist, and strong seasonal wind stress resulted in reduced ice-cover and increased primary production. After ca. 8900 cal yrs BP the forest density increased around the lake, runoff decreased in a generally drier climate resulting in decreased primary production in the lake until ca. 7000 cal yrs BP. This generally dry climate was interrupted by a brief climatic perturbation, possibly attributed to the 8.2 ka event, indicating increasingly windy conditions with thick snow cover, reduced ice-cover and slightly elevated primary production in the lake. The diatom record shows maximum thermal stratification at ca. 6300-5800 cal yrs BP and indicates together with the geochemical proxies a dry and slightly warmer climate resulting in a high productive lake. The most remarkably change in the catchment vegetation occurred at ca. 4200 cal yrs BP in the form of a conspicuous increase in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. This vegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Bjorck, S, et al. (författare)
  • Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 274:5290, s. 1155-1160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On the basis of synchronization of three carbon-14 (C-14)-dated lacustrine sequences from Sweden With tree ring and ice core records, the absolute age of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal climatic shift was determined to be 11,450 to 11,390 +/- 80 years before the present. A 150-year-long cooling in the early Preboreal, associated with rising Delta(14)C values, is evident in all records and indicates an ocean ventilation change. This cooling is similar to earlier deglacial coolings, and box-model calculations suggest that they all may have been the result of increased freshwater forcing that inhibited the strength of the North Atlantic heat conveyor, although the Younger Dryas may have begun as an anomalous meltwater event.
  • Bragée, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Historical TOC concentration minima during peak sulfur deposition in two Swedish lakes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus Publications. - 1726-4189 .- 1726-4170. ; 12:2, s. 307-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decadal-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in lake water since AD1200 in two small lakes in southern Sweden were reconstructed based on visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) of their recent sediment successions. In order to assess the impacts of local land-use changes, regional variations in sulfur, and nitrogen deposition and climate variations on the inferred changes in TOC concentration, the same sediment records were subjected to multi-proxy palaeolimnological analyses. Changes in lake-water pH were inferred from diatom analysis, whereas pollen-based land-use reconstructions (Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm) together with geochemical records provided information on catchment-scale environmental changes, and comparisons were made with available records of climate and population density. Our long-term reconstructions reveal that inferred lake-water TOC concentrations were generally high prior to AD1900, with additional variability coupled mainly to changes in forest cover and agricultural land-use intensity. The last century showed significant changes, and unusually low TOC concentrations were inferred at AD1930-1990, followed by a recent increase, largely consistent with monitoring data. Variations in sulfur emissions, with an increase in the early 1900s to a peak around AD1980 and a subsequent decrease, were identified as an important driver of these dynamics at both sites, while processes related to the introduction of modern forestry and recent increases in precipitation and temperature may have contributed, but the effects differed between the sites. The increase in lake-water TOC concentration from around AD1980 may therefore reflect a recovery process. Given that the effects of sulfur deposition now subside and that the recovery of lake-water TOC concentrations has reached pre-industrial levels, other forcing mechanisms related to land management and climate change may become the main drivers of TOC concentration changes in boreal lake waters in the future.
  • Davies, SM, et al. (författare)
  • Cryptotephra sedimentation processes within two lacustrine sequences from west central Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Holocene. - : SAGE Publications. - 0959-6836. ; 17, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Distal tephra horizons, particularly within lacustrine sequences, are increasingly being used as time-synchronous marker horizons within palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental investigations. As sedimentary features marking the presence of these so-called cryptotephras are absent to the naked eye, it is of some importance that the stratigraphic position representing primary airfall, and likewise the timing Of the volcanic event, is accurately and consistently recorded amongst these deposits. Often tephra shards from a cryptotephra deposit can be found spanning several centimetres of sediments within lacustrine and peat sequences. Very few studies, however, have looked in detail at the sedimentation and vertical distribution of cryptotephra deposits within such sequences and, more importantly, the criteria for defining the correct stratigraphic position of the volcanic event. Two sediment cores from Lake Spaime and Lake Getvaltjarnen, west central Sweden are employed to investigate in detail the vertical distribution of the tephra shards derived from the AD 1875 eruption of the Askja volcano in Iceland. Detailed geochemical analysis of shards from both records indicate that products of the Askja eruption are present for at least 120 years and thus emphasize the importance of carefully identifying the correct horizon that marks the timing of the volcanic event rather than shards resulting from a period of reworking or downward migration. Both sites yield contrasting shard concentration profiles and thus raise a number of questions regarding the influence of site-specific processes on cryptotephra sedimentation, particularly the role of snow-beds acting as tephra traps, the possibility of reworking, and downward migration of shards in soft sediment. A second tephra is also identified at Lake Getvaltjarnen and is believed to originate from the AD 1477 Veidivotn eruption and represents the first occurrence of this tephra outside of Iceland.
  • Hammarlund, D., et al. (författare)
  • Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change. - : Elsevier. - 0921-8181 .- 1872-6364. ; 134:SI, s. 91-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800calyr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000calyr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000calyr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.
  • Hammarlund, D., et al. (författare)
  • Palaeolimnological and sedimentary responses to Holocene forest retreat in the Scandes Mountains, west-central Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Holocene. - : SAGE Publications. - 0959-6836. ; 14:6, s. 862-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A suite of analyses was performed on sediments accumulated during the last 10 700 years in Lake Spaime, a small, hydrologically open water body in the modern alpine tundra zone of the Scandes Mountains, west-central Sweden. The study aimed to evaluate (1) the nature of climate changes that forced the late-Holocene lowering of altitudinal tree limit in the region, the timing of which is known from prior studies based on radiocarbon dating of subfossil wood, and (2) the impact of these vegetational changes on an aquatic ecosystem. Arboreal pollen and plant macrofossil data confirm the persistence of trees in the lake catchment at least from c. 9700 cal. BP until c. 3700 cal. BP. Although growing-season temperature is commonly believed to be the dominant factor driving boreal forest tree-limit variations in the region, a chironomid-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature suggests that local deforestation during the late Holocene was not accompanied by a significant cooling. The tree-limit retreat was more likely caused by increasing effective moisture and declining length of the growing season. The ecohydrological response of Lake Spaime to this combination of climate and vegetational changes included a decline in primary productivity, as indicated by an abrupt decrease in sediment organic matter content, while associated increases in organic delta(13)C, delta(15)N and C/N point to diminished fluxes and altered balance of catchment-derived nutrients following deforestation. The decline in aquatic productivity is also marked by a distinct change in the mineral magnetic properties, from a high magnetic concentration assemblage dominated by fine-grained magnetite of biogenic origin to one dominated by background levels of coarse-grained detrital magnetite.
  • Karlsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying the relative importance of lake emissions in the carbon budget of a subarctic catchment
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 2156-2202 .- 0148-0227. ; 115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change and thawing of permafrost will likely result in increased decomposition of terrestrial organic carbon and subsequent carbon emissions to the atmosphere from terrestrial and aquatic systems. The quantitative importance of mineralization of terrestrial organic carbon in lakes in relation to terrestrial carbon fluxes is poorly understood and a serious drawback for the understanding of carbon budgets. We studied a subarctic lake in an area of discontinuous permafrost to assess the quantitative importance of lake carbon emission for the catchment carbon balance. Estimates of net ecosystem production and stable carbon-isotope composition of dissolved organic carbon in the lake water suggest substantial input and respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the lake. The lake was a net source of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere at ice breakup in spring and during the whole ice-free period. The carbon emission from the lake was similar in magnitude to the terrestrial net release of carbon to the atmosphere. The results indicate that lakes are important sources of catchment carbon emission, potentially increasing the positive feedback from permafrost thawing on global warming.
  • Klimaschewski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6364 .- 0921-8181. ; 134, s. 142-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.I.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae. In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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