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1.
  • Campbell, PJ, et al. (författare)
  • Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 578:7793, s. 82-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Asano, Takaki, et al. (författare)
  • X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency in ~1% of men under 60 years old with life-threatening COVID-19.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science immunology. - 2470-9468. ; 6:62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal inborn errors of type I IFN immunity and autoantibodies against these cytokines underlie at least 10% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases. We report very rare, biochemically deleterious X-linked TLR7 variants in 16 unrelated male individuals aged 7 to 71 years (mean: 36.7 years) from a cohort of 1,202 male patients aged 0.5 to 99 years (mean: 52.9 years) with unexplained critical COVID-19 pneumonia. None of the 331 asymptomatically or mildly infected male individuals aged 1.3 to 102 years (mean: 38.7 years) tested carry such TLR7 variants (p = 3.5 × 10-5). The phenotypes of five hemizygous relatives of index cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 include asymptomatic or mild infection (n=2, 5 and 38 years), or moderate (n=1, 5 years), severe (n=1, 27 years), or critical (n=1, 29 years) pneumonia. Two boys (aged 7 and 12 years) from a cohort of 262 male patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (mean: 51.0 years) are hemizygous for a deleterious TLR7 variant. The cumulative allele frequency for deleterious TLR7 variants in the male general population is < 6.5x10-4 We also show that blood B cell lines and myeloid cell subsets from the patients do not respond to TLR7 stimulation, a phenotype rescued by wild-type TLR7 The patients' blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce low levels of type I IFNs in response to SARS-CoV-2. Overall, X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency is a highly penetrant genetic etiology of critical COVID-19 pneumonia, in about 1.8% of male patients below the age of 60 years. Human TLR7 and pDCs are essential for protective type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract.
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6.
  • Borte, S., et al. (författare)
  • Placental Transfer of Maternally-Derived IgA Precludes the Use of Guthrie Card Eluates as a Screening Tool for Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 7:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T), whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD), 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases.
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7.
  • Sharma, S., et al. (författare)
  • Human Sera Collected between 1979 and 2010 Possess Blocking-Antibody Titers to Pandemic GII.4 Noroviruses Isolated over Three Decades
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - : AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY. - 0022-538X .- 1098-5514. ; 91:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emergence of pandemic GII.4 norovirus (NoV) strains has been proposed to occur due to changes in receptor usage and thereby to lead to immune evasion. To address this hypothesis, we measured the ability of human sera collected between 1979 and 2010 to block glycan binding of four pandemic GII. 4 noroviruses isolated in the last 4 decades. In total, 268 sera were investigated for 50% blocking titer (BT50) values of virus-like particles (VLPs) against pig gastric mucin (PGM) using 4 VLPs that represent different GII. 4 norovirus variants identified between 1987 and 2012. Pre- and postpandemic sera (sera collected before and after isolation of the reference NoV strain) efficiently prevented binding of VLP strains MD145 (1987), Grimsby (1995), and Houston (2002), but not the Sydney (2012) strain, to PGM. No statistically significant difference in virus-blocking titers was observed between pre- and postpandemic sera. Moreover, paired sera showed that blocking titers of >= 160 were maintained over a 6-year period against MD145, Grimsby, and Houston VLPs. Significantly higher serum blocking titers (geometric mean titer [GMT], 1,704) were found among IgA-deficient individuals than among healthy blood donors (GMT, 90.9) (P < 0.0001). The observation that prepandemic sera possess robust blocking capacity for viruses identified decades later suggests a common attachment factor, at least until 2002. Our results indicate that serum IgG possesses antibody-blocking capacity and that blocking titers can be maintained for at least 6 years against 3 decades of pandemic GII. 4 NoV. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in saliva and gut recognize NoV and are the proposed ligands that facilitate infection. Polymorphisms in HBGA genes, and in particular a nonsense mutation in FUT2 (G428A), result in resistance to global dominating GII. 4 NoV. The emergence of new pandemic GII. 4 strains occurs at intervals of several years and is proposed to be attributable to epochal evolution, including amino acid changes and immune evasion. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to a previous pandemic strain stimulates immunity to a pandemic strain identified decades later. We found that prepandemic sera possess robust virus-blocking capacity against viruses identified several decades later. We also show that serum lacking IgA antibodies is sufficient to block NoV VLP binding to HBGAs. This is essential, considering that 1 in every 600 Caucasian children is IgA deficient.
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  • Bronson, P. G., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants at PVT1, ATG13-AMBRA1, AHI1 and CLEC16A are associated with selective IgA deficiency
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:11, s. 1425-1429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common p rimary immunodeficiency in Europeans. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 1,635 patients with IgAD and 4,852 controls identified four new significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) loci and association with a rare IFIH1 variant (p.11e923Val). Peak new variants (PVT1, P = 4.3 x 10(-11); ATG13-AMBRA1, P = 6.7 x 10(-10); AHI1, P = 8.4 x 10(-10); CLEC16A, P = 1.4 x 10(-9)) overlapped with autoimmune markers (3/4) and correlated with 21 putative regulatory variants, including expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for AHI1 and DEXI and DNase hypersensitivity sites in FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells. Pathway analysis of the meta-analysis results showed striking association with the KEGG pathway for IgA production (pathway P < 0.0001), with 22 of the 30 annotated pathway genes containing at least one variant with P <= 0.05 in the IgAD meta-analysis. These data suggest that a complex network of genetic effects, including genes known to influence the biology of IgA production, contributes to IgAD.
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