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1.
  • Abeysekara, A. U., et al. (författare)
  • VERITAS and Fermi-LAT Observations of TeV Gamma-Ray Sources Discovered by HAWC in the 2HWC Catalog
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - Institute of Physics Publishing. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 866:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) collaboration recently published their 2HWC catalog, listing 39 very high energy (VHE; &gt;100 GeV) gamma-ray sources based on 507 days of observation. Among these, 19 sources are not associated with previously known teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-ray sources. We have studied 14 of these sources without known counterparts with VERITAS and Fermi-LAT. VERITAS detected weak gamma-ray emission in the 1 TeV-30 TeV band in the region of DA 495, a pulsar wind nebula coinciding with 2HWC J1953+294, confirming the discovery of the source by HAWC. We did not find any counterpart for the selected 14 new HAWC sources from our analysis of Fermi-LAT data for energies higher than 10 GeV. During the search, we detected gigaelectronvolt (GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with a known TeV pulsar wind nebula, SNR G54.1+0.3 (VER J1930+188), and a 2HWC source, 2HWC J1930+188. The fluxes for isolated, steady sources in the 2HWC catalog are generally in good agreement with those measured by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. However, the VERITAS fluxes for SNR G54.1+0.3, DA 495, and TeV J2032+4130 are lower than those measured by HAWC, and several new HAWC sources are not detected by VERITAS. This is likely due to a change in spectral shape, source extension, or the influence of diffuse emission in the source region.</p>
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3.
  • Sims, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:9, s. 1373-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P &lt; 1 x 10(-4)) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p. Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 x 10(-10), odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p. Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 x 10-10, OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p. Arg62His, P = 1.55 x 10(-14), OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.</p>
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4.
  • Vergallo, A., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma amyloid beta 40/42 ratio predicts cerebral amyloidosis in cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - 1552-5260. ; 15:6, s. 764-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Blood-based biomarkers of pathophysiological brain amyloid beta (A beta) accumulation, particularly for preclinical target and large-scale interventions, are warranted to effectively enrich Alzheimer's disease clinical trials and management. Methods: We investigated whether plasma concentrations of the A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio, assessed using the single-molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay, may predict brain A beta positron emission tomography status in a large-scale longitudinal monocentric cohort (N = 276) of older individuals with subjective memory complaints. We performed a hypothesis-driven investigation followed by a no-apriori hypothesis study using machine learning. Results: The receiver operating characteristic curve and machine learning showed a balanced accuracy of 76.5% and 81%, respectively, for the plasma A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio. The accuracy is not affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele, sex, or age. Discussion: Our results encourage an independent validation cohort study to confirm the indication that the plasma A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio, assessed via Simoa, may improve future standard of care and clinical trial design. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Dubois, Bruno, et al. (författare)
  • Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 12:3, s. 292-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations.
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8.
  • Duits, Flora H, et al. (författare)
  • The cerebrospinal fluid "Alzheimer profile": Easily said, but what does it mean?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - Wiley. - 1552-5279. ; 10:6, s. 713-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to identify the most useful definition of the "cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer profile," based on amyloid-ß1-42 (Aβ42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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10.
  • Lewczuk, Piotr, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers for neurodegenerative dementias: An update of the Consensus of the Task Force on Biological Markers in Psychiatry of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. - 1814-1412. ; 19:4, s. 244-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the 12 years since the publication of the first Consensus Paper of the WFSBP on biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias, enormous advancement has taken place in the field, and the Task Force takes now the opportunity to extend and update the original paper. New concepts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the conceptual interactions between AD and dementia due to AD were developed, resulting in two sets for diagnostic/research criteria. Procedures for pre-analytical sample handling, biobanking, analyses and post-analytical interpretation of the results were intensively studied and optimised. A global quality control project was introduced to evaluate and monitor the inter-centre variability in measurements with the goal of harmonisation of results. Contexts of use and how to approach candidate biomarkers in biological specimens other than cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), e.g. blood, were precisely defined. Important development was achieved in neuroimaging techniques, including studies comparing amyloid-β positron emission tomography results to fluid-based modalities. Similarly, development in research laboratory technologies, such as ultra-sensitive methods, raises our hopes to further improve analytical and diagnostic accuracy of classic and novel candidate biomarkers. Synergistically, advancement in clinical trials of anti-dementia therapies energises and motivates the efforts to find and optimise the most reliable early diagnostic modalities. Finally, the first studies were published addressing the potential of cost-effectiveness of the biomarkers-based diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.
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