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1.
  • Mitchell, Jonathan S., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P = 1.31 x 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P = 9.09 x 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P = 9.71 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P = 4.20 x 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P = 1.72 x 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P = 1.77 x 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P = 5.00 x 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P = 1.36 x 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.
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2.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic correlation between multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia provides evidence for shared aetiology
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Blood Cancer Journal. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2044-5385 .- 2044-5385. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clustering of different types of B-cell malignancies in families raises the possibility of shared aetiology. To examine this, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD)-score regression of multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, totalling 11,734 cases and 29,468 controls. A significant genetic correlation between these two B-cell malignancies was shown (R-g = 0.4, P = 0.0046). Furthermore, four of the 45 known CLL risk loci were shown to associate with MM risk and five of the 23 known MM risk loci associate with CLL risk. By integrating eQTL, Hi-C and ChlP-seq data, we show that these pleiotropic risk loci are enriched for B-cell regulatory elements and implicate B-cell developmental genes. These data identify shared biological pathways influencing the development of CLL and, MM and further our understanding of the aetiological basis of these B-cell malignancies.
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3.
  • Cossarizza, A., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies (second edition)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : WILEY. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 49:10, s. 1457-1973
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • These guidelines are a consensus work of a considerable number of members of the immunology and flow cytometry community. They provide the theory and key practical aspects of flow cytometry enabling immunologists to avoid the common errors that often undermine immunological data. Notably, there are comprehensive sections of all major immune cell types with helpful Tables detailing phenotypes in murine and human cells. The latest flow cytometry techniques and applications are also described, featuring examples of the data that can be generated and, importantly, how the data can be analysed. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid, all written and peer-reviewed by leading experts in the field, making this an essential research companion.
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4.
  • Hansson, Kristofer, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction: Interpreting the brain in society
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Interpreting the brain in society. Cultural reflections on neuroscientific practices. - : Arkiv förlag. - 1404-000X. - 9789179242961 - 9789179242930 - 9789198085495 ; , s. 11-15
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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5.
  • Nahi, Hareth, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of Treatment-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Multiple Myeloma in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Acta Haematologica. - : Karger. - 0001-5792 .- 1421-9662. ; 144:5, s. 519-527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) is a complication of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. Objective: This real-world, retrospective study used electronic medical record (EMR) data from 3 Swedish clinics to assess the occurrence and economic burden of TIPN in patients with MM. Methods: Eligible patients had an MM diagnosis in the Swedish Cancer Registry between 2006 and 2015 and initiated treatment during that period. Follow-up was until last EMR visit, death, or study end (April 2017). The current analyses included patients receiving bortezomib, lenalidomide, carfilzomib, or thalidomide at any treatment line. To discern healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs associated with TIPN from other causes, patients with TIPN were matched with those without on baseline characteristics, treatment, and line of therapy. All analyses were descriptive. Results: Overall, 457 patients were included; 102 (22%) experienced TIPN. Patients experiencing TIPN during first-line treatment mostly received bortezomib-based regimens (n = 48/57 [84%]); those with TIPN during second- A nd third/fourth-line treatment mostly received lenalidomide/thalidomide-based regimens (19/31 [61%], 8/14 [57%], respectively). Patients with TIPN had higher HCRU/costs than those without TIPN (mean differences in hospital outpatient visits: 5.2, p = 0.0031; total costs per patient-year: EUR 17,183, p = 0.0007). Conclusions: Effective MM treatments associated with a reduced incidence of TIPN could result in decreased healthcare expenditure.
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6.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of multiple risk loci and regulatory mechanisms influencing susceptibility to multiple myeloma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of susceptibility to multiple myeloma (MM), but much of the heritability remains unexplained. We report a new GWAS, a meta-analysis with previous GWAS and a replication series, totalling 9974 MM cases and 247,556 controls of European ancestry. Collectively, these data provide evidence for six new MM risk loci, bringing the total number to 23. Integration of information from gene expression, epigenetic profiling and in situ Hi-C data for the 23 risk loci implicate disruption of developmental transcriptional regulators as a basis of MM susceptibility, compatible with altered B-cell differentiation as a key mechanism. Dysregulation of autophagy/apoptosis and cell cycle signalling feature as recurrently perturbed pathways. Our findings provide further insight into the biological basis of MM.
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7.
  • Ahlén Bergman, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Increased CD4+ T cell lineage commitment determined by CpG methylation correlates with better prognosis in urinary bladder cancer patients
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - : BMC. - 1868-7083. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Environmental factors and chronic inflammation are correlated with the disease risk. Diagnosis is performed by transurethral resection of the bladder, and patients with muscle invasive disease preferably proceed to radical cystectomy, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The anti-tumour immune responses, known to be initiated in the tumour and draining lymph nodes, may play a major role in future treatment strategies. Thus, increasing the knowledge of tumour-associated immunological processes is important. Activated CD4+ T cells differentiate into four main separate lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg, and they are recognized by their effector molecules IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17A, and the transcription factor Foxp3, respectively. We have previously demonstrated signature CpG sites predictive for lineage commitment of these four major CD4+ T cell lineages. Here, we investigate the lineage commitment specifically in tumour, lymph nodes and blood and relate them to the disease stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.RESULTS: Blood, tumour and regional lymph nodes were obtained from patients at time of transurethral resection of the bladder and at radical cystectomy. Tumour-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly hypomethylated in all four investigated lineage loci compared to CD4+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and blood (lymph nodes vs tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: IFNG -4229 bp p < 0.0001, IL13 -11 bp p < 0.05, IL17A -122 bp p < 0.01 and FOXP3 -77 bp p > 0.05). Examination of individual lymph nodes displayed different methylation signatures, suggesting possible correlation with future survival. More advanced post-cystectomy tumour stages correlated significantly with increased methylation at the IFNG -4229 bp locus. Patients with complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy displayed significant hypomethylation in CD4+ T cells for all four investigated loci, most prominently in IFNG p < 0.0001. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy seemed to result in a relocation of Th1-committed CD4+ T cells from blood, presumably to the tumour, indicated by shifts in the methylation patterns, whereas no such shifts were seen for lineages corresponding to IL13, IL17A and FOXP3.CONCLUSION: Increased lineage commitment in CD4+ T cells, as determined by demethylation in predictive CpG sites, is associated with lower post-cystectomy tumour stage, complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and overall better outcome, suggesting epigenetic profiling of CD4+ T cell lineages as a useful readout for clinical staging.
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8.
  • Akhoondi, Shahab, et al. (författare)
  • FBXW7/hCDC4 is a general tumor suppressor in human cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 67:19, s. 9006-9012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major regulatory pathway of protein degradation and plays an important role in cellular division. Fbxw7 (or hCdc4), a member of the F-box family of proteins, which are substrate recognition components of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase SCF (Skpl-Cdc53/ Cullin-F-box-protein), has been shown to mediate the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several oncoproteins including cyclin El, c-Myc, c-Jun, and Notch. The oncogenic potential of Fbxw7 substrates, frequent allelic loss in human cancers, and demonstration that mutation of FBXW7 cooperates with p53 in mouse tumorigenesis have suggested that Fbxw7 could function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. Here, we carry out an extensive genetic screen of primary tumors to evaluate the role of FBXW7 as a tumor suppressor in human tumorigenesis. Our results indicate that FBXW7 is inactivated by mutation in diverse human cancer types with an overall mutation frequency of ∼ 6%. The highest mutation frequencies were found in tumors of the bile duct (cholangio-carcinomas, 35%), blood (T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia, 31%), endometrium (9%), colon (9%), and stomach (6%). Approximately 43% of all mutations occur at two mutational "hotspots," which alter Arg residues (Arg465 and Arg479) that are critical for substrate recognition. Furthermore, we show that Fbxw7Arg465 hotspot mutant can abrogate wild-type Fbxw7 function through a dominant negative mechanism. Our study is the first comprehensive screen of FBXW7 mutations in various human malignancies and shows that FBXW7 is a general tumor suppressor in human cancer.
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9.
  • Ali, Mina, et al. (författare)
  • The multiple myeloma risk allele at 5q15 lowers ELL2 expression and increases ribosomal gene expression
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, we identified ELL2 as a susceptibility gene for multiple myeloma (MM). To understand its mechanism of action, we performed expression quantitative trait locus analysis in CD138+ plasma cells from 1630 MM patients from four populations. We show that the MM risk allele lowers ELL2 expression in these cells (P combined = 2.5 × 10-27; β combined = -0.24 SD), but not in peripheral blood or other tissues. Consistent with this, several variants representing the MM risk allele map to regulatory genomic regions, and three yield reduced transcriptional activity in plasmocytoma cell lines. One of these (rs3777189-C) co-locates with the best-supported lead variants for ELL2 expression and MM risk, and reduces binding of MAFF/G/K family transcription factors. Moreover, further analysis reveals that the MM risk allele associates with upregulation of gene sets related to ribosome biogenesis, and knockout/knockdown and rescue experiments in plasmocytoma cell lines support a cause-effect relationship. Our results provide mechanistic insight into MM predisposition.
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10.
  • Andersson, Emelie, et al. (författare)
  • Blood and cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light differentially detect neurodegeneration in early Alzheimer's disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580. ; 95, s. 143-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NfL) concentration has reproducibly been shown to reflect neurodegeneration in brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). NfL concentration in blood correlates with the corresponding CSF levels, but few studies have directly compared the reliability of these 2 markers in sporadic AD. Herein, we measured plasma and CSF concentrations of NfL in 478 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 227 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 113 patients with AD dementia. We found that the concentration of NfL in CSF, but not in plasma, was increased in response to Aβ pathology in CU subjects. Both CSF and plasma NfL concentrations were increased in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia. Furthermore, only NfL in CSF was associated with reduced white matter microstructure in CU subjects. Finally, in a transgenic mouse model of AD, CSF NfL increased before serum NfL in response to the development of Aβ pathology. In conclusion, NfL in CSF may be a more reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration than NfL in blood in preclinical sporadic AD.
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