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1.
  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - 2168-6157. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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2.
  • Andersson, Malin E., et al. (författare)
  • Kinesin gene variability may affect tau phosphorylation in early Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International journal of molecular medicine. - 1107-3756. ; 20:2, s. 233-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kinesin is a microtubule-associated motor protein that transports Alzheimer-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons. In animal models, impaired kinesin-mediated APP transport seems to enhance formation of the neurotoxic 42 amino acid fragment of beta-amyloid (A beta 42). In man, one study suggests that a polymorphism (rs8702, 56,836G > C) in the kinesin light chain 1 gene (KNS2) may affect the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further assess KNS2 as a susceptibility gene for AD we analyzed 802 patients with sporadic AD and 286 controls, 134 longitudinally followed patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 39 cognitively stable controls for the rs8702 polymorphism. The rs8702 polymorphism did not influence risk of AD (p=0.46). However, rs8702 interacted with APOE epsilon 4 carrier status in AD (p=0.006) and influenced cerebrospinal fluid levels of hyper-phosphorylated tau in MCI patients who converted to AD during follow-up (p=0.018). These findings support earlier indications that genetic variability in the KNS2 gene may play a role during early stages of AD pathogenesis.
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3.
  • B. Pereira, Joana, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid network topology characterizes the progression of Alzheimer's disease during the predementia stages
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211. ; 28:1, s. 340-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+). The amyloid networks were built using correlations in the mean 18F-florbetapir PET values between 72 brain regions and analyzed using graph theory analyses. Our findings showed an association between early amyloid stages and increased covariance as well as shorter paths between several brain areas that overlapped with the default-mode network (DMN). Moreover, we found that individuals with more advanced amyloid accumulation showedmore widespread changes in brain regions both within and outside the DMN. These findings suggest that amyloid network topology could potentially be used to assess disease progression in the predementia stages of AD.
4.
  • Buchhave, Peder, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal study of CSF biomarkers in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 4:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The CSF biomarkers tau and Abeta42 can identify patients with AD, even during the preclinical stages. However, previous studies on longitudinal changes of tau and Abeta42 in individual patients with AD and elderly controls report somewhat inconsistent results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the levels of tau and Abeta42 at baseline and after 1 year in 100 patients with AD. In a second cohort of 45 AD patients we measured the CSF biomarkers at baseline and after 2 years. Moreover, in 34 healthy elderly controls the CSF biomarkers were followed for 4 years. The baseline levels of tau were increased with >60% in AD patients compared to controls (p<0.001), while baseline Abeta42 levels were decreased with >50% (p<0.001). In the AD group followed for 2 years, tau increased with 16% compared to the baseline levels (p<0.05). However, the levels of tau were stable over 4 years in the controls. The levels of Abeta42 did not change significantly over time in any of the groups. In the patients with AD, tau was moderately associated with worse cognitive performance already at baseline (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tau and Abeta42 in CSF seem to reflect the underlying disease state in both early and late stages of AD. The slight increase in tau over time observed in the patients with AD is modest when compared to the relatively large difference in absolute tau levels between AD patients and controls. Therefore, these markers maintain their usefulness as state markers over time and might serve as surrogate markers for treatment efficacy in clinical trials.
5.
  • Duits, Flora H, et al. (författare)
  • The cerebrospinal fluid "Alzheimer profile": Easily said, but what does it mean?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - Wiley. - 1552-5279. ; 10:6, s. 713-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to identify the most useful definition of the "cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer profile," based on amyloid-ß1-42 (Aβ42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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6.
  • Ferreira, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The interactive effect of demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume : A multicohort study on 1958 cognitively normal individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1050-9631. ; 27:6, s. 653-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hippocampal atrophy. Other factors also influence the hippocampal volume, but their interactive effect has not been investigated before in cognitively healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive effect of key demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume, in contrast to previous studies frequently investigating these factors in a separate manner. Also, to investigate how comparable the control groups from ADNI, AIBL, and AddNeuroMed are with five population-based cohorts. In this study, 1958 participants were included (100 AddNeuroMed, 226 ADNI, 155 AIBL, 59 BRC, 295 GENIC, 279 BioFiNDER, 398 PIVUS, and 446 SNAC-K). ANOVA and random forest were used for testing between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables. Multiple regression was used to study the influence of demographic-clinical variables on hippocampal volume. ANCOVA was used to analyze whether between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables explained between-cohort differences in hippocampal volume. Age and global brain atrophy were the most important variables in explaining variability in hippocampal volume. These variables were not only important themselves but also in interaction with gender, education, MMSE, and total intracranial volume. AddNeuroMed, ADNI, and AIBL differed from the population-based cohorts in several demographic-clinical variables that had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Variability in hippocampal volume in individuals with normal cognition is high. Differences that previously tended to be related to disease mechanisms could also be partly explained by demographic and clinical factors independent from the disease. Furthermore, cognitively normal individuals especially from ADNI and AIBL are not representative of the general population. These findings may have important implications for future research and clinical trials, translating imaging biomarkers to the general population, and validating current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and predementia stages.
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7.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic body fat and risk of death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The EPIC cohort.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 80:9, s. 829-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the association between body fat and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with an appropriate prospective study design. METHODS: The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study included 518,108 individuals recruited from the general population across 10 Western European countries. At recruitment, information on lifestyle was collected and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Cox hazard models were fitted to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and ALS mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two ALS deaths (79 men and 143 women) occurred during the follow-up period (mean follow-up = 13 years). There was a statistically significant interaction between categories of body mass index and sex regarding ALS risk (p = 0.009): in men, a significant linear decrease of risk per unit of body mass index was observed (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.99 per kg/m(2)); among women, the risk was more than 3-fold increased for underweight compared with normal-weight women. Among women, a significant risk reduction increasing the waist/hip ratio was also evident: women in the top quartile had less than half the risk of ALS compared with those in the bottom quartile (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.93) with a borderline significant p value for trend across quartiles (p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: Increased prediagnostic body fat is associated with a decreased risk of ALS mortality.
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8.
  • Golman, Klaes, et al. (författare)
  • 13C-angiography.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Academic Radiology. - Elsevier. - 1878-4046. ; 9:Suppl 2, s. 507-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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9.
  • Hansson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Use of the tau protein-to-peptide ratio in CSF to improve diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Mass Spectrometry. - 2376-9998. ; 14, s. 74-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and phospho-tau are well established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. While these measures are conventionally referred to as ‘total tau’ (T-tau) and ‘phospho-tau’ (P-tau), several truncated and modified tau forms exist that may relay additional diagnostic information. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of an endogenous tau peptide in CSF, tau 175–190, in the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated state. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was established to measure these peptides in CSF and was used to analyze two independent clinical cohorts; the first cohort included patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 15), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 15), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 15), the second cohort included AD patients (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 24). In both cohorts T-tau and P-tau concentrations were determined by immunoassay. While tau 175–190 and P-tau 175–190 did not differentiate the study groups, the separation of AD and controls by T-tau (area under the ROC Curve (AUC) = 95%) and P-tau (AUC = 92%) was improved when normalizing the ELISA measurements to the concentrations of the endogenous peptides: T-tau/tau 175–190 (AUC = 100%), P-tau/P-tau 175–190 (AUC = 95%). The separation between patients and controls by T-tau (AUC = 88%) and P-tau (AUC = 82%) was similarly improved in the second cohort by taking the ratios of T-tau/tau 175–190 (AUC = 97%) and P-tau/P-tau 175–190 (AUC = 98%). In conclusion, our results suggest that the performance of the AD biomarkers T-tau and P-tau could be improved by normalizing their measurements to the endogenous peptides tau 175–190 and P-tau 175–190, possibly because these endogenous tau peptides serve to normalize for physiological, and disease-independent, secretion of tau from neurons to the extracellular space and the CSF. Finally, the observations made here add to the general applicability of mass spectrometry as a tool for rapid identification and accurate quantification of biomarker candidates.
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10.
  • Holtta, Mikko, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating Amyloid-beta Oligomers in Cerebrospinal Fluid as a Biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study evaluated amyloid-beta oligomers (A beta o) in cerebrospinal fluid as a clinical biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed a highly sensitive A beta o ELISA using the same N-terminal monoclonal antibody (82E1) for capture and detection. CSF samples from patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls were examined. The assay was specific for oligomerized A beta with a lower limit of quantification of 200 fg/ml, and the assay signal showed a tight correlation with synthetic A beta o levels. Three clinical materials of well characterized AD patients (n = 199) and cognitively healthy controls (n = 148) from different clinical centers were included, together with a clinical material of patients with MCI (n = 165). A beta o levels were elevated in the all three AD-control comparisons although with a large overlap and a separation from controls that was far from complete. Patients with MCI who later converted to AD had increased A beta o levels on a group level but several samples had undetectable levels. These results indicate that presence of high or measurable A beta o levels in CSF is clearly associated with AD, but the overlap is too large for the test to have any diagnostic potential on its own.
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