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  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Are athletes burning out with passion?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science. - Campaign, Ill. : Human Kinetics. - 1746-1391 .- 1536-7290. ; 11:6, s. 387-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Passion is a strong motivational force towards an activity considered very important, possibly to the extent that the activity forms a part of an individual’s identity. Two forms of passion, harmonious and obsessive, are thought to lead to different cognitive and affective responses. Although being passionate about sport appears to be important from a motivational perspective, it possibly also increases the risk for burnout, which is a negative consequence blamed partly on too much training and inadequate recovery. The question voiced in this study is whether harmonious passion and obsessive passion pose equal risks for burnout. Participants were 94 female and 164 male competitive athletes from 21 sports. The results,  analysed using partial correlation and multivariate analyses of variance, showed that athletes with an obsessive passion scored higher on a burnout inventory than did harmoniously passionate athletes. Obsessively passionate athletes also scored higher on perceived stress and negative affect, and lower on positive affect. These findings support the assumption that even though the two forms of passion may be an integral part of elite sports, athletes scoring high on obsessive passion may be at greater risk of developing burnout than more harmoniously passionate athletes. Burning bright and burning out can thus be seen as two potential consequences for athletes driven by passion. Athletes and coaches who are aware of this may be better equipped to avoid the potential negative consequences associated with too much stress and too little recovery.
  • Lindwall, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Depression and exercise in elderly men and women : findings from the Swedish national study on aging and care
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. - Champaign, Illinois : Human Kinetics Publishers. - 1063-8652 .- 1543-267X. ; 15:1, s. 41-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the relationship between light and strenuous exercise and depression, as well as gender differences in this relationship, in a representative sample of 860 elderly Swedish suburb-dwelling men and women in age cohorts from 60 to 96 years, drawn from among participants in the Swedish National Aging and Care study. The relationship between depression and self-reported changes in exercise status over time was also examined. Exercise activities were measured with four survey questions, and depression, with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The inactive elderly had higher depression scores than more active individuals, both in terms of light and strenuous exercise. The continuously active group had lower depression scores than both continuously inactive individuals and individuals reporting a shift from activity to inactivity during the preceding year. Light exercise had a somewhat stronger effect on depression for women.
  • Stenling, A., et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 1469-0292 .- 1878-5476. ; 30, s. 205-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise. - 1469-0292 .- 1878-5476. ; 9:6, s. 800-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To extend the understanding of burnout in elite athletes, including personal experiences and perceived antecedents. Design and Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Swedish 22- to 26-year-old elite athletes who had quit sport due to burnout. The interview transcripts were inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis, Results: The findings support the notion of athlete burnout as a multidimensional syndrome. While stressors like multiple demands. "too much sport," lack of recovery and high expectations were considered primary causes of burnout by the respondents, high motivation, unidimensional athletic identity. self-esteem strivings, high ego goals, negative perfectionist traits and feelings of entrapment were also found to be critical contributors. These restraining factors explained why the athletes continued their participation in sport despite a progressive worsening of their condition, and are therefore potentially crucial in the development of burnout. Conclusion: Athlete burnout appears to be it complex interaction of multiple stressors, inadequate recovery and frustration from unfulfilled expectations, which is explained partly by maladaptive perfectionist traits and goals. This process is fuelled by a strong drive to validate self-worth, sometimes in conjunction with feelings of entrapment.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Athlete burnout : an integrated model and future research directions
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. - : Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. - 1750-984X .- 1750-9858. ; 4:1, s. 3-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Athlete burnout is a multifaceted phenomenon. As a consequence, several attempts have been made to describe it from both a process and a state perspective. A number of theories and models exist that deal with the process of burning out and/or its antecedents. When viewed separately, the presented findings may be perceived as contradicting each other, or at best as confusing. To advance the field, we offer a comprehensive review of what is presently known within the area of athlete burnout and what new knowledge is needed. Furthermore, we suggest an integrated model of athlete burnout. This model includes major antecedents, early signs, consequences, and factors related to personality, coping and the environment. Our purpose is not to present the definitive model but to create a conceptual understanding of the field as it is seen today, and thereby stimulate empirical research to further advance the knowledge base.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the relationship between hope and burnout in competitive sport
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences. - : Routledge Taylor and Francis group. - 0264-0414 .- 1466-447X. ; 28:14, s. 1495-1504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Researchers have postulated that hope may be an important factor associated with burnout. Consistent with hope theory contentions, low-hope individuals may be susceptible to burnout because they are prone to experience goal blockage, frustration, and negative affect, all of which likely increase the risk of burnout. We examined the relationship between hope and athlete burnout among 178 competitive athletes (63 females and 115 males) aged 15-20 years. Hope was significantly and negatively correlated with all three burnout subscales: emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance showed that low-hope athletes scored significantly higher than medium- and high-hope athletes on all three burnout dimensions. Finally, results revealed that agency thinking was a significant predictor of all burnout dimensions. Frustration over unmet goals and a perceived lack of agency, a characteristic of low-hope athletes, might pose a risk factor in athlete burnout, whereas being able to maintain hope appears to be associated with health and well-being.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of burnout in competitive adolescent athletes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Sport psychologist. - 0888-4781 .- 1543-2793. ; 21:1, s. 21-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examined the factorial validity of the Eades Burnout Inventory (EABI) and the prevalence of burnout in adolescent elite athletes and whether burnout is more common in individual sports than in team sports. The EABI was distributed to 980 athletes (402 females and 578 males) in 29 different sports. Confirmatory-factor analyses revealed an acceptable factorial validity for a theoretically supported four-factor model of the EABI. Between 1% and 9% of the athletes displayed elevated burnout scores on these four subscales. The hypothesis of higher prevalence of burnout in individual sports was, however, not supported. Furthermore, no correlation between training load and burnout scores was found. These findings suggest that factors other than training load must be considered when athletes at risk for burnout are investigated.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The process of burnout : A multiple case study of three elite endurance athletes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sport Psychology. - : Edizioni Luigi Pozzi srl. - 0047-0767. ; 38:4, s. 388-416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the process of burning out in endurance athletes. The experiences of three elite cross-country skiers who left Their sport due to burnout were explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and inductively analyzed. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and training logs were used to validate the interviews and to enrich the analysis. The burnout process was found to evolve with different severity and time perspectives in the three cases. Athletic identity and achievement strivings to validate self-esteem were found to be important driving forces in the burnout process. Also, chronic lack of mental and physical recovery as well as early skiing success leading to high expectations comprised common themes in the burnout process.
  • Nyström, Markus, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Are physical activity and sedentary behavior related to depression?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Depression is an increasing public health concern with rising prevalence. Nevertheless, far from everyone seeks help or receives adequate treatment. Although psychotherapy and antidepressants still constitute the bulk of treatments offered, recent research suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a powerful adjunct therapy while sedentary behavior (SB) is a definite risk factor for developing depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PA, SB and depressive symptoms in a population (n = 962) of applicants for an online treatment study. This study hypothesised that there will be; (1) a positive relationship between SB and depressive symptoms, and (2) a negative relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. In addition we investigated whether the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity increased the risk for depressive symptoms. Finally, we also examined whether gender, age, marital status, educational level, or medication affected the relationship between PA, SB, and depressive symptoms. The results showed a positive correlation between SB and depression. There was, however, no statistically significant support for a negative relation between PA and depressive symptoms. Even though no conclusions about causality can be drawn, our results suggest that high SB, being a woman, being young, not being in a stable relationship, and current or previous medication are risk factors for depression. To be able to determine the causal direction, that is, whether high SB increases the risk for depressive symptoms, or if depressive symptoms increase the likelihood of high SB, further research is needed.
  • Nyström, Markus B. T., et al. (författare)
  • Treating Major Depression with Physical Activity : A Systematic Overview with Recommendations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1650-6073 .- 1651-2316. ; 44:4, s. 341-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this systematic overview was to determine the most effective mode and dose of physical activity (PA) for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), and to suggest guidelines and recommendations for clinicians. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted up until April 2014 in the following databases: PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed and Scopus. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, (2) complete description of intensity, duration and frequency of the PA, (3) the participants had to be diagnosed with MDD according to Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4 th edition (DSM-IV) or International Classification of Disease tenth Revision (ICD-10) criteria (4) if the controls received any treatment, it had to be specified, (5) published after 1990, (6) consist of aerobic or anaerobic treatment PA, and (7) not be a pilotor preliminary study. A quality assessment of each study was conducted independently by two reviewers; this stringent selection process resulted in 12 reviewed studies. Conclusion: individually customized PA, for at least 30 minutes, preferably performed under supervision and with a frequency of at least three times per week is recommended when treating MDD. These recommendations must be viewed in light of the relatively few studies matching the inclusion criteria.
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