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Sökning: WFRF:(Hattori Nobutaka)

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1.
  • Heckman, Michael G., et al. (författare)
  • Population-specific Frequencies for LRRK2 Susceptibility Variants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 28:12, s. 1740-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundVariants within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 variation related to disease susceptibility displays many features that reflect the nature of complex, late-onset sporadic disorders like Parkinson's disease. MethodsThe Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium recently performed the largest genetic association study for variants in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene across 23 different sites in 15 countries. ResultsHerein, we detail the allele frequencies for the novel risk factors (p.A419V and p.M1646T) and the protective haplotype (p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K) nominated in the original publication. Simple population allele frequencies not only can provide insight into the clinical relevance of specific variants but also can help genetically define patient groups. ConclusionsEstablishing individual patient-based genomic susceptibility profiles that incorporate both risk factors and protective factors will determine future diagnostic and treatment strategies. (c) 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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2.
  • Krüger, Rejko, et al. (författare)
  • A large-scale genetic association study to evaluate the contribution of Omi/HtrA2 (PARK13) to Parkinson's disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 1558-1497. ; 32:3, s. 9-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-profile studies have provided conflicting results regarding the involvement of the Omi/HtrA2 gene in Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility. Therefore, we performed a large-scale analysis of the association of common Omi/HtrA2 variants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease (GEO-PD) consortium. GEO-PD sites provided clinical and genetic data including affection status, gender, ethnicity, age at study, age at examination (all subjects); age at onset and family history of PD (patients). Genotyping was performed for the five most informative SNPs spanning the Omi/HtrA2 gene in approximately 2-3 kb intervals (rs10779958, rs2231250, rs72470544, rs1183739, rs2241028). Fixed as well as random effect models were used to provide summary risk estimates of Omi/HtrA2 variants. The 20 GEO-PD sites provided data for 6378 cases and 8880 controls. No overall significant associations for the five Omi/HtrA2 SNPs and PD were observed using either fixed effect or random effect models. The summary odds ratios ranged between 0.98 and 1.08 and the estimates of between-study heterogeneity were not large (non-significant Q statistics for all 5 SNPs; I(2) estimates 0-28%). Trends for association were seen for participants of Scandinavian descent for rs2241028 (OR 1.41, p=0.04) and for rs1183739 for age at examination (cut-off 65 years; OR 1.17, p=0.02), but these would not be significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons and their Bayes factors were only modest. This largest association study performed to define the role of any gene in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease revealed no overall strong association of Omi/HtrA2 variants with PD in populations worldwide.
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3.
  • Ross, Owen A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of LRRK2 exonic variants with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 10:10, s. 898-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals with and without PD, to investigate the role of the variants in PD susceptibility. Methods LRRK2 was genotyped in patients with PD and controls from three series (white, Asian, and Arab-Berber) from sites participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium. Genotyping was done for exonic variants of LRRK2 that were identified through searches of literature and the personal communications of consortium members. Associations with PD were assessed by use of logistic regression models. For variants that had a minor allele frequency of 0.5% or greater, single variant associations were assessed, whereas for rarer variants information was collapsed across variants. Findings 121 exonic LRRK2 variants were assessed in 15 540 individuals: 6995 white patients with PD and 5595 controls, 1376 Asian patients and 962 controls, and 240 Arab-Berber patients and 372 controls. After exclusion of carriers of known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were identified for polymorphic variants in white individuals (M1646T, odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.78; p=0.0012) and Asian individuals (A419V, 2.27, 1.35-3.83; p=0.0011). A protective haplotype (N551K-R1398H-K1423K) was noted at a frequency greater than 5% in the white and Asian series, with a similar finding in the Arab-Berber series (combined odds ratio 0.82, 0.72-0.94; p=0.0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants, G2385R was associated with disease (1.73, 1.20-2.49; p=0.0026), but no association was noted for R1628P (0.62, 0.36-1.07; p=0.087). In the Arab-Berber series, Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (4.48, 133-15.09; p=0.012). Interpretation The results for LRRK2 show that several rare and common genetic variants in the same gene can have independent effects on disease risk. LRRK2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the cause and pathogenesis of PD in a greater proportion of patients with this disease than previously believed. These results will help discriminate those patients who will benefit most from therapies targeted at LRRK2 pathogenic activity. Funding Michael J Fox Foundation and National Institutes of Health.
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4.
  • Sharma, Manu, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale replication and heterogeneity in Parkinson disease genetic loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 79:7, s. 67-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown.METHODS: Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry.RESULTS: In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78-0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14-1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I(2) estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD.CONCLUSION: Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity.
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5.
  • Cartelli, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Parkin absence accelerates microtubule aging in dopaminergic neurons
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580. ; 61, s. 66-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loss-of-function caused by mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) lead to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease. Recently, mechanistic studies proved the ability of parkin in regulating mitochondria homeostasis and microtubule (MT) stability. Looking at these systems during aging of PARK2 knockout mice, we found that loss of parkin induced an accelerated (over)acetylation of MT system both in dopaminergic neuron cell bodies and fibers, localized in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum, respectively. Interestingly, in PARK2 knockout mice, changes of MT stability preceded the alteration of mitochondria transport. Moreover, in-cell experiments confirmed that loss of parkin affects mitochondria mobility and showed that this defect depends on MT system as it is rescued by paclitaxel, a well-known MT-targeted agent. Furthermore, both in PC12 neuronal cells and in patients' induced pluripotent stem cell–derived midbrain neurons, we observed that parkin deficiencies cause the fragmentation of stable MTs. Therefore, we suggest that parkin acts as a regulator of MT system during neuronal aging, and we endorse the hypothesis that MT dysfunction may be crucial in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
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6.
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7.
  • Ross, Owen A., et al. (författare)
  • Genomic investigation of alpha-synuclein multiplication and parkinsonism
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1531-8249. ; 63:6, s. 743-750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Copy number variation is a common polymorphic phenomenon within the human genome. Although the majority of these events are non-deleterious they can also be highly pathogenic. Herein we characterize five families with parkinsonism that have been identified to harbor multiplication of the chromosomal 4q21 locus containing the a-synuclein gene (SNCA). Methods: A methodological approach using fluorescent in situ hybridization and Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) 250K SNP microarrays was used to characterize the multiplication in each family and to identify the genes encoded within the region. The telomeric and centromeric breakpoints of each family were further narrowed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction with microsatellite markers and then screened for transposable repeat elements. Results: The severity of clinical presentation is correlated with SNCA dosage and does not appear to be overtly affected by the presence of other genes in the multiplicated region. With the exception of the Lister kindred, in each family the multiplication event appears de novo. The type and position of Alu/LINE repeats are also different at each breakpoint. Microsatellite analysis demonstrates two genomic mechanisms are responsible for chromosome 4q21 multiplications, including both SNCA duplication and recombination. Interpretation: SNCA dosage is responsible for parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and dementia observed within each family. We hypothesize dysregulated expression of wild-type (alpha-synuclein results in parkinsonism and may explain the recent association of common SNCA variants in sporadic Parkinson's disease. SNCA genomic duplication results from intraallelic (segmental duplication) or interallelic recombination with unequal crossing over, whereas both mechanisms appear to be required for genomic SNCA triplication.
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8.
  • Vaikath, Nishant Narayanan, et al. (författare)
  • Generation and characterization of novel conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies for α-synuclein pathology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - : Elsevier. - 0969-9961. ; 79, s. 81-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • α-Synuclein (α-syn), a small protein that has the intrinsic propensity to aggregate, is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), which are collectively known as synucleinopathies. Genetic, pathological, biochemical, and animal modeling studies provided compelling evidence that α-syn aggregation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PD and related synucleinopathies. It is therefore of utmost importance to develop reliable tools that can detect the aggregated forms of α-syn. We describe here the generation and characterization of six novel conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize specifically α-syn aggregates but not the soluble, monomeric form of the protein. The antibodies described herein did not recognize monomers or fibrils generated from other amyloidogenic proteins including β-syn, γ-syn, β-amyloid, tau protein, islet amyloid polypeptide and ABri. Interestingly, the antibodies did not react to overlapping linear peptides spanning the entire sequence of α-syn, confirming further that they only detect α-syn aggregates. In immunohistochemical studies, the new conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies showed underappreciated small micro-aggregates and very thin neurites in PD and DLB cases that were not observed with generic pan antibodies that recognize linear epitope. Furthermore, employing one of our conformation-specific antibodies in a sandwich based ELISA, we observed an increase in levels of α-syn oligomers in brain lysates from DLB compared to Alzheimer's disease and control samples. Therefore, the conformation-specific antibodies portrayed herein represent useful tools for research, biomarkers development, diagnosis and even immunotherapy for PD and related pathologies.
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