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Sökning: WFRF:(Haukvik UK)

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1.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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2.
  • Haukvik, Unn Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • An exploratory model for G x E interaction on hippocampal volume in schizophrenia; obstetric complications and hypoxia-related genes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0278-5846 .- 1878-4216. ; 34:7, s. 1259-1265
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smaller hippocampal volume has repeatedly been reported in schizophrenia patients Obstetric complications (OCs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in schizophrenia susceptibility genes have independently been related to hippocampal volume We investigated putative independent and interaction effects of severe hypoxia-related OCs and variation in four hypoxia-regulated schizophrenia susceptibility genes (BDNF, DTNBP1, GRM3 and NRG1) on hippocampal volume in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods Clinical assessment, structural MRI scans, and blood samples for genotyping of 32 SNPs were obtained from 54 schizophrenia patients and 53 control subjects Information on obstetric complications was collected from original birth records Results Severe OCs were related to hippocampal volume in both patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects Of the 32 SNPs studied, effects of severe OCs on hippocampal volume were associated with allele variation in GRM3 rs13242038, but the interaction effect was not specific for schizophrenia. SNP variation in any of the four investigated genes alone did not significantly affect hippocampal volume. Conclusions. The findings suggest a gene-environment (G x E) interaction between GRM3 gene variants and severe obstetric complications on hippocampus volume, independent of a diagnosis of schizophrenia Due to the modest sample size, the results must be considered preliminary and require replication in independent samples. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved
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3.
  • Haukvik, Unn Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebral cortical thickness and a history of obstetric complications in schizophrenia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1379. ; 43:16, s. 1287-1293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have thinner brain cortices compared with healthy control subjects. Neurodevelopment is vulnerable to obstetric complications (OCs) such as hypoxia and birth trauma, factors that are also related to increased risk of developing schizophrenia. With the hypothesis that OCs might explain the thinner cortices found in schizophrenia, we studied patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls subjects for association between number and severity of OCs and variation in cortical thickness. Methods: MRI scans of 54 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 54 healthy controls were acquired at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Measures of brain cortical thickness were obtained using automated computer processing (FreeSurfer). OCs were assessed from obstetric records and scored blindly according to the McNeil-Sjostrom scale. At numerous cortical locations, putative effects of OCs on cortical thickness variation were tested for each trimester, for labour, for composite OC scores, severe OC scores, and hypoxia scores among patients and controls separately. Results: Number and severity of OCs varied among both patient and control subjects but were not associated with cortical thickness in either of the groups. Patients demonstrated thinner brain cortices but there were no significant differences in number and severity of OC scores across groups. Conclusion: In the present study, number and severity of obstetric complications were not associated with brain cortical thickness, in patients with schizophrenia or in healthy control subjects. The thinner brain cortices found in patients with schizophrenia were not explained by a history of OCs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Haukvik, U. K., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical folding in Broca's area relates to obstetric complications in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1469-8978. ; 42:6, s. 1329-1337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The increased occurrence of obstetric complications (OCs) in patients with schizophrenia suggests that alterations in neurodevelopment may be of importance to the aetiology of the illness. Abnormal cortical folding may reflect subtle deviation from normal neurodevelopment during the foetal or neonatal period. In the present study, we hypothesized that OCs would be related to cortical folding abnormalities in schizophrenia patients corresponding to areas where patients with schizophrenia display altered cortical folding when compared with healthy controls. Method. In total, 54 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy control subjects underwent clinical examination and magnetic resonance image scanning on a 1.5 T scanner. Information on OCs was collected from original birth records. An automated algorithm was used to calculate a three-dimensional local gyrification index (lGI) at numerous points across the cortical mantle. Results. In both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, an increasing number of OCs was significantly related to lower lGI in the left pars triangularis (p<0.0005) in Broca's area. For five other anatomical cortical parcellations in the left hemisphere, a similar trend was demonstrated. No significant relationships between OCs and lGI were found in the right hemisphere and there were no significant case-control differences in lGI. Conclusions. The reduced cortical folding in the left pars triangularis, associated with OCs in both patients and control subjects suggests that the cortical effect of OCs is caused by factors shared by schizophrenia patients and healthy controls rather than factors related to schizophrenia alone.
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5.
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6.
  • Haukvik, Unn Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • No effect of obstetric complications on basal ganglia volumes in schizophrenia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0278-5846 .- 1878-4216. ; 34:4, s. 619-623
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heterogeneous findings have been reported in studies of basal ganglia volumes in schizophrenia patients as compared to healthy controls. The basal ganglia contain dopamine receptors that are known to be involved in schizophrenia pathology and to be vulnerable to pre- and perinatal hypoxic insults. Altered volumes of other brain structures (e.g. hippocampus and lateral ventricles) have been reported in schizophrenia patients with a history of obstetric complications (005). This is the first study to explore if there is a relationship between OCs and basal ganglia volume in schizophrenia. Methods: Thorough clinical investigation (including information on medication) of 54 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy control subjects was undertaken. MR images were obtained on a 1.5T scanner, and volumes of nucleus caudatus, globus pallidum, putamen, and nucleus accumbens were quantified automatically. Information on OCs was blindly collected from original birth records. Results: Unadjusted estimates demonstrated a relationship between increasing number of OCs and larger volume of nucleus accumbens in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. No statistically significant relationships were found between OCs and the basal ganglia volumes when controlled for intracranial volume, age, and multiple comparisons. There were no effects of typical versus atypical medication on the basal ganglia volumes. The patients with schizophrenia had larger globus pallidum volumes as compared to healthy controls, but there were no case-control differences for accumbens, putamen, or caudate volumes. Conclusion: The present results do not support the hypothesis that OCs are related to alterations in basal ganglia volume in chronic schizophrenia. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Haukvik, U. K., et al. (författare)
  • Pre- and perinatal hypoxia associated with hippocampus/amygdala volume in bipolar disorder
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1469-8978. ; 44:5, s. 975-985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Pre- and perinatal adversities may increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hypoxia-related obstetric complications (OCs) are associated with brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their association with brain anatomy variation in bipolar disorder is unknown. Method Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, clinical examinations and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were obtained for 219 adults, including 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder (age 29.4 years, s.d.=11.8 years, 39% male) and 140 healthy controls (age 30.8 years, s.d.=12.0 years, 53% male). Severe hypoxia-related OCs throughout pregnancy/birth and perinatal asphyxia were each studied in relation to a priori selected brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricles and amygdala, obtained with FreeSurfer), using linear regression models covarying for age, sex, medication use and intracranial volume. Multiple comparison adjustment was applied. Results Perinatal asphyxia was associated with smaller left amygdala volume (t=-2.59, p=0.012) in bipolar disorder patients, but not in healthy controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed distinct associations between perinatal asphyxia and smaller left amygdala volume (t=-2.69, p=0.010), whereas patients with non-psychotic bipolar disorder showed smaller right hippocampal volumes related to both perinatal asphyxia (t=-2.60, p=0.015) and severe OCs (t=-3.25, p=0.003). No associations between asphyxia or severe OCs and the lateral ventricles were found. Conclusions Pre- and perinatal hypoxia-related OCs are related to brain morphometry in bipolar disorder in adulthood, with specific patterns in patients with psychotic versus non-psychotic illness.
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8.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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9.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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