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Sökning: WFRF:(Hauling Thomas)

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  • Tiklova, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals midbrain dopamine neuron diversity emerging during mouse brain development
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons constitute a heterogenous group of cells that have been intensely studied, not least because their degeneration causes major symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the diversity of mDA neurons - previously well characterized anatomically - requires a systematic molecular classification at the genome-wide gene expression level. Here, we use single cell RNA sequencing of isolated mouse neurons expressing the transcription factor Pitx3, a marker for mDA neurons. Analyses include cells isolated during development up until adulthood and the results are validated by histological characterization of newly identified markers. This identifies seven neuron subgroups divided in two major branches of developing Pitx3-expressing neurons. Five of them express dopaminergic markers, while two express glutamatergic and GABAergic markers, respectively. Analysis also indicate evolutionary conservation of diversity in humans. This comprehensive molecular characterization will provide a valuable resource for elucidating mDA neuron subgroup development and function in the mammalian brain.
  • Carow, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial and temporal localization of immune transcripts defines hallmarks and diversity in the tuberculosis granuloma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Granulomas are the pathological hallmark of tuberculosis (TB) and the niche where bacilli can grow and disseminate or the immunological microenvironment in which host cells interact to prevent bacterial dissemination. Here we show 34 immune transcripts align to the morphology of lung sections from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice at cellular resolution. Colocalizing transcript networks at <10 mu m in C57BL/6 mouse granulomas increase complexity with time after infection. B-cell clusters develop late after infection. Transcripts from activated macrophages are enriched at subcellular distances from M. tuberculosis. Encapsulated C3HeB/FeJ granulomas show necrotic centers with transcripts associated with immunosuppression (Foxp3, Il10), whereas those in the granuloma rims associate with activated T cells and macrophages. We see highly diverse networks with common interactors in similar lesions. Different immune landscapes of M. tuberculosis granulomas depending on the time after infection, the histopathological features of the lesion, and the proximity to bacteria are here defined.
  • Qian, Xiaoyan, et al. (författare)
  • Probabilistic cell typing enables fine mapping of closely related cell types in situ
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 17:1, s. 101-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the function of a tissue requires knowing the spatial organization of its constituent cell types. In the cerebral cortex, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has revealed the genome-wide expression patterns that define its many, closely related neuronal types, but cannot reveal their spatial arrangement. Here we introduce probabilistic cell typing by in situ sequencing (pciSeq), an approach that leverages prior scRNA-seq classification to identify cell types using multiplexed in situ RNA detection. We applied this method by mapping the inhibitory neurons of mouse hippocampal area CA1, for which ground truth is available from extensive prior work identifying their laminar organization. Our method identified these neuronal classes in a spatial arrangement matching ground truth, and further identified multiple classes of isocortical pyramidal cell in a pattern matching their known organization. This method will allow identifying the spatial organization of closely related cell types across the brain and other tissues.
  • Bidla, Gawa, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of Insect Phenoloxidase after Injury : Endogenous versus Foreign Elicitors
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Innate Immunity. - 1662-811X. ; 1:4, s. 301-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) is one of the first immune molecules that was identified in invertebrates. Recently, the immune function of PO has been challenged. We tested how PO is activated following injury in 2 insects, i.e. the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Rapid PO activation in Drosophila was limited to discrete areas of the hemolymph clot which forms after injury. Surprisingly, unlike systemic PO activation during bacterial sepsis, clot melanization was not sensitive to microbial elicitors in our assay. Instead, Drosophila clot melanization was activated by endogenous signals such as apoptotic cells and was superinduced by phosphatidylserine, a negatively charged phospholipid normally found on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and exposed during apoptosis. In contrast, melanization in G. mellonella hemolymph was stronger and more uniform and was sensitive to peptidoglycan. This shows that both exogenous and endogenous signals can trigger the same immune mechanism in species and context-dependent ways. Our findings have implications for the evolutionary dynamics of immune mechanisms and are in agreement with recent comparisons of insect immune transcriptomes.
  • Hauling, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • A Drosophila immune response against Ras-induced overgrowth
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biology Open. - 2046-6390. ; 3:4, s. 250-260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our goal is to characterize the innate immune response against the early stage of tumor development. For this, animal models where genetic changes in specific cells and tissues can be performed in a controlled way have become increasingly important, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Many tumor mutants in Drosophila affect the germline and, as a consequence, also the immune system itself, making it difficult to ascribe their phenotype to a specific tissue. Only during the past decade, mutations have been induced systematically in somatic cells to study the control of tumorous growth by neighboring cells and by immune cells. Here we show that upon ectopic expression of a dominant-active form of the Ras oncogene (Ras(V12)), both imaginal discs and salivary glands are affected. Particularly, the glands increase in size, express metalloproteinases and display apoptotic markers. This leads to a strong cellular response, which has many hallmarks of the granuloma-like encapsulation reaction, usually mounted by the insect against larger foreign objects. RNA sequencing of the fat body reveals a characteristic humoral immune response. In addition we also identify genes that are specifically induced upon expression of Ras(V12). As a proof-of-principle, we show that one of the induced genes (santa-maria), which encodes a scavenger receptor, modulates damage to the salivary glands. The list of genes we have identified provides a rich source for further functional characterization. Our hope is that this will lead to a better understanding of the earliest stage of innate immune responses against tumors with implications for mammalian immunity.
  • Hyrsl, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • Clotting Factors and Eicosanoids Protect against Nematode Infections
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Innate Immunity. - 1662-811X. ; 3:1, s. 65-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We show that hemolymph clotting protects Drosophila melanogaster against infections with an entomopathogenic nematode and its symbiotic bacterium. We also provide biochemical and genetic evidence for an involvement of eicosanoids in the same infection model. Taken together, our results confirm the conserved nature of the immune function of clot formation.
  • Ke, Rongqin, et al. (författare)
  • Fourth Generation of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies : Promise and Consequences
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 37:12, s. 1363-1367
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this review, we discuss the emergence of the fourth-generation sequencing technologies that preserve the spatial coordinates of RNA and DNA sequences with up to subcellular resolution, thus enabling back mapping of sequencing reads to the original histological context. This information is used, for example, in two current large-scale projects that aim to unravel the function of the brain. Also in cancer research, fourth-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize the field. Cancer Research UK has named Mapping the molecular and cellular tumor microenvironment in order to define new targets for therapy and prognosis one of the grand challenges in tumor biology. We discuss the advantages of sequencing nucleic acids directly in fixed cells over traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, the limitations and challenges that these new methods have to face to become broadly applicable, and the impact that the information generated by the combination of in situ sequencing and NGS methods will have in research and diagnostics.
  • Korayem, Ahmed, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for an immune function of lepidopteran silk proteins
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC. - 0006-291X .- 1090-2104. ; 352:2, s. 317-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hemolymph coagulation stops bleeding and protects against infection. Clotting factors include both proteins that are conserved during evolution as well as more divergent proteins in different species. Here we show that several silk proteins also appear in the clot of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. RT-PCR analysis reveals that silk proteins are expressed in immune tissues and induced upon wounding in both Galleria and Ephestia kuehniella, a second pyralid moth. Our results support the idea that silk proteins were co-opted for immunity and coagulation during evolution.
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