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Sökning: WFRF:(Heales Simon)

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1.
  • Burke, Derek G., et al. (författare)
  • Increased glucocerebrosidase (GBA) 2 activity in GBA1 deficient mice brains and in Gaucher leucocytes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. - : Springer. - 0141-8955. ; 36:5, s. 869-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) deficiency is causative for Gaucher disease. Not all individuals with GBA1 mutations develop neurological involvement raising the possibility that other factors may provide compensatory protection. One factor may be the activity of the non-lysosomal beta-glucosidase (GBA2) which exhibits catalytic activity towards glucosylceramide and is reported to be highly expressed in brain tissue. Here, we assessed brain GBA2 enzymatic activity in wild type, heterozygote and GBA1 deficient mice. Additionally, we determined activity in leucocytes obtained from 13 patients with Gaucher disease, 10 patients with enzymology consistent with heterozygote status and 19 controls. For wild type animals, GBA2 accounted for over 85 % of total brain GBA activity and was significantly elevated in GBA1 deficient mice when compared to heterozygote and wild types (GBA1 deficient; 92.4 +/- 5.6, heterozygote; 71.5 +/- 2.4, wild type 76.8 +/- 5.1 nmol/h/mg protein). For the patient samples, five Gaucher patients had GBA2 leucocyte activities markedly greater than controls. No difference in GBA2 activity was apparent between the control and carrier groups. Undetectable GBA2 activity was identified in four leucocyte preparations; one in the control group, two in the carrier group and one from the Gaucher disease group. Work is now required to ascertain whether GBA2 activity is a disease modifying factor in Gaucher disease and to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for triggering increased GBA2 activity in GBA1 deficiency states.
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2.
  • Darin, Niklas, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in PROSC Disrupt Cellular Pyridoxal Phosphate Homeostasis and Cause Vitamin-B6-Dependent Epilepsy.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American journal of human genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 99:6, s. 1325-1337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested. Whole-exome sequencing of two children from a consanguineous family with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in proline synthetase co-transcribed homolog (bacterial), PROSC, which encodes a PLP-binding protein of hitherto unknown function. Subsequent sequencing of 29 unrelated indivduals with pyridoxine-responsive epilepsy identified four additional children with biallelic PROSC mutations. Pre-treatment cerebrospinal fluid samples showed low PLP concentrations and evidence of reduced activity of PLP-dependent enzymes. However, cultured fibroblasts showed excessive PLP accumulation. An E.coli mutant lacking the PROSC homolog (ΔYggS) is pyridoxine sensitive; complementation with human PROSC restored growth whereas hPROSC encoding p.Leu175Pro, p.Arg241Gln, and p.Ser78Ter did not. PLP, a highly reactive aldehyde, poses a problem for cells, which is how to supply enough PLP for apoenzymes while maintaining free PLP concentrations low enough to avoid unwanted reactions with other important cellular nucleophiles. Although the mechanism involved is not fully understood, our studies suggest that PROSC is involved in intracellular homeostatic regulation of PLP, supplying this cofactor to apoenzymes while minimizing any toxic side reactions.
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3.
  • Massaro, Giulia, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal gene therapy for neurodegenerative disease of infants
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956. ; 24:9, s. 1317-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For inherited genetic diseases, fetal gene therapy offers the potential of prophylaxis against early, irreversible and lethal pathological change. To explore this, we studied neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD), caused by mutations in GBA. In adult patients, the milder form presents with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and occasional lung and bone disease; this is managed, symptomatically, by enzyme replacement therapy. The acute childhood lethal form of nGD is untreatable since enzyme cannot cross the blood–brain barrier. Patients with nGD exhibit signs consistent with hindbrain neurodegeneration, including neck hyperextension, strabismus and, often, fatal apnea1. We selected a mouse model of nGD carrying a loxP-flanked neomycin disruption of Gba plus Cre recombinase regulated by the keratinocyte-specific K14 promoter. Exclusive skin expression of Gba prevents fatal neonatal dehydration. Instead, mice develop fatal neurodegeneration within 15 days2. Using this model, fetal intracranial injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector reconstituted neuronal glucocerebrosidase expression. Mice lived for up to at least 18 weeks, were fertile and fully mobile. Neurodegeneration was abolished and neuroinflammation ameliorated. Neonatal intervention also rescued mice but less effectively. As the next step to clinical translation, we also demonstrated the feasibility of ultrasound-guided global AAV gene transfer to fetal macaque brains.
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4.
  • Meyer, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the histone methyltransferase gene KMT2B cause complex early-onset dystonia.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Histone lysine methylation, mediated by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins, is now known to be critical in the regulation of gene expression, genomic stability, cell cycle and nuclear architecture. Despite MLL proteins being postulated as essential for normal development, little is known about the specific functions of the different MLL lysine methyltransferases. Here we report heterozygous variants in the gene KMT2B (also known as MLL4) in 27 unrelated individuals with a complex progressive childhood-onset dystonia, often associated with a typical facial appearance and characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. Over time, the majority of affected individuals developed prominent cervical, cranial and laryngeal dystonia. Marked clinical benefit, including the restoration of independent ambulation in some cases, was observed following deep brain stimulation (DBS). These findings highlight a clinically recognizable and potentially treatable form of genetic dystonia, demonstrating the crucial role of KMT2B in the physiological control of voluntary movement.
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6.
  • Heywood, Wendy E., et al. (författare)
  • Proteomic Discovery and Development of a Multiplexed Targeted MRM-LC-MS/MS Assay for Urine Biomarkers of Extracellular Matrix Disruption in Mucopolysaccharidoses I, II, and VI
  • Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0003-2700. ; 87:24, s. 12238-12244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are lysosomal storage disorders that result from defects in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Impaired muscle, bone, and connective tissue are typical clinical features of MPS due to disruption of the extracellular matrix. Markers of MPS disease pathology are needed to determine disease severity and monitor effects of existing and emerging new treatments on disease mechanisms. Urine samples from a small cohort of MPS-I, -II, and -VI patients (n = 12) were analyzed using label-free quantative proteomics. Fifty-three proteins including many associated with extracellular matrix organization were differently expressed. A targeted multiplexed peptide MRM LC-MS/MS assay was used on a larger validation cohort of patient samples (MPS-I n = 18, MPS-II n = 12, MPS-VI n = 6, control n = 20). MPS-I and -II groups were further subdivided according to disease severity. None of the markers assessed were altered significantly in the mild disease groups compared to controls. β-galactosidase, a lysosomal protein, was elevated 3.6-5.7-fold significantly (p < 0.05) in all disease groups apart from mild MPS-I and -II. Collagen type Iα, fatty-acid-binding-protein 5, nidogen-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 concentrations were elevated in severe MPS I and II groups. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7, and β-galactosidase were able to distinguish the severe neurological form of MPS-II from the milder non-neurological form. Protein Heg1 was significantly raised only in MPS-VI. This work describes the discovery of new biomarkers of MPS that represent disease pathology and allows the stratification of MPS-II patients according to disease severity.
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