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1.
  • Röder, Marko, et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics. - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 93:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,γ)N20 and N20(n,γ)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,γ)N20 rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at T<1GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.
2.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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3.
  • de Vera, Jean-Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - Mary Ann Liebert. - 1531-1074. ; 19:2, s. 145-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports-among others-the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia). In this project, lichens, archaea, bacteria, cyanobacteria, snow/permafrost algae, meristematic black fungi, and bryophytes from alpine and polar habitats were embedded, grown, and cultured on a mixture of martian and lunar regolith analogs or other terrestrial minerals. The organisms and regolith analogs and terrestrial mineral mixtures were then exposed to space and to simulated Mars-like conditions by way of the EXPOSE-R2 facility. In this special issue, we present the first set of data obtained in reference to our investigation into the habitability of Mars and limits of life. This project was initiated and implemented by the BIOMEX group, an international and interdisciplinary consortium of 30 institutes in 12 countries on 3 continents. Preflight tests for sample selection, results from ground-based simulation experiments, and the space experiments themselves are presented and include a complete overview of the scientific processes required for this space experiment and postflight analysis. The presented BIOMEX concept could be scaled up to future exposure experiments on the Moon and will serve as a pretest in low Earth orbit.
4.
  • Eckhard, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Co-localisation of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in rat and human cochleae reveals a gap in water channel expression at the transduction sites of endocochlear K+ recycling routes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 350:1, s. 27-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensory transduction in the cochlea depends on perilymphatic-endolymphatic potassium (K+) recycling. It has been suggested that the epithelial supporting cells (SCs) of the cochlear duct may form the intracellular K+ recycling pathway. Thus, they must be endowed with molecular mechanisms that facilitate K+ uptake and release, along with concomitant osmotically driven water movements. As yet, no molecules have been described that would allow for volume-equilibrated transepithelial K+ fluxes across the SCs. This study describes the subcellular co-localisation of the Kir4.1 K+ channel (Kir4.1) and the aquaporin-4 water channel (AQP4) in SCs, on the basis of immunohistochemical double-labelling experiments in rat and human cochleae. The results of this study reveal the expression of Kir4.1 in the basal or basolateral membranes of the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti that are adjacent to hair cells and in the non-sensory domains of the inner and outer sulci that abut large extracellular fluid spaces. The SCs of the inner sulcus (interdental cells, inner sulcus cells) and the outer sulcus (Hensen’s cells, outer sulcus cells) display the co-localisation of Kir4.1 and AQP4 expression. However, the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti reveal a gap in the expression of AQP4. The outer pillar cell is devoid of both Kir4.1 and AQP4. The subcellular co-localisation of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the SCs of the cochlea described in this study resembles that of the astroglia of the central nervous system and the glial Mueller cells in the retina.
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5.
  • Fam, Yakub, et al. (författare)
  • A versatile nanoreactor for complementary in situ X-ray and electron microscopy studies in catalysis and materials science
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. - International Union of Crystallography. - 0909-0495. ; 26, s. 1769-1781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two in situ 'nanoreactors' for high-resolution imaging of catalysts have been designed and applied at the hard X-ray nanoprobe endstation at beamline P06 of the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The reactors house samples supported on commercial MEMS chips, and were applied for complementary hard X-ray ptychography (23 nm spatial resolution) and transmission electron microscopy, with additional X-ray fluorescence measurements. The reactors allow pressures of 100 kPa and temperatures of up to 1573 K, offering a wide range of conditions relevant for catalysis. Ptychographic tomography was demonstrated at limited tilting angles of at least ±35° within the reactors and ±65° on the naked sample holders. Two case studies were selected to demonstrate the functionality of the reactors: (i) annealing of hierarchical nanoporous gold up to 923 K under inert He environment and (ii) acquisition of a ptychographic projection series at ±35° of a hierarchically structured macroporous zeolite sample under ambient conditions. The reactors are shown to be a flexible and modular platform for in situ studies in catalysis and materials science which may be adapted for a range of sample and experiment types, opening new characterization pathways in correlative multimodal in situ analysis of functional materials at work. The cells will presently be made available for all interested users of beamline P06 at PETRA III.
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6.
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7.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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8.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
9.
  • Mohnke, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Further evidence for the impact of a genome-wide-supported psychosis risk variant in ZNF804A on the Theory of Mind network
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0893-133X. ; 39:5, s. 1196-1205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in ZNF804A is one of the best-supported risk variants for psychosis. We hypothesized that this SNP contributes to the development of schizophrenia by affecting the ability to understand other people's mental states. This skill, commonly referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), has consistently been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously showed that in healthy individuals rs1344706 impacted on activity and connectivity of key areas of the ToM network, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and the posterior cingulate cortex, which show aberrant activity in schizophrenia patients, too. We aimed to replicate these results in an independent sample of 188 healthy German volunteers. In order to assess the reliability of brain activity elicited by the ToM task, 25 participants performed the task twice with an interval of 14 days showing excellent accordance in recruitment of key ToM areas. Confirming our previous results, we observed decreasing activity of the left temporo-parietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex with increasing number of risk alleles during ToM. Complementing our replication sample with the discovery sample, analyzed in a previous report (total N=297), further revealed negative genotype effects in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as well as in the temporal and parietal regions. In addition, as shown previously, rs1344706 risk allele dose positively predicted increased frontal-temporo-parietal connectivity. These findings confirm the effects of the psychosis risk variant in ZNF804A on the dysfunction of the ToM network.
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10.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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