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1.
  • Huijben, Jilske A, et al. (författare)
  • Changing care pathways and between-center practice variations in intensive care for traumatic brain injury across Europe : a CENTER-TBI analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 46:5, s. 995-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To describe ICU stay, selected management aspects, and outcome of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Europe, and to quantify variation across centers.METHODS: This is a prospective observational multicenter study conducted across 18 countries in Europe and Israel. Admission characteristics, clinical data, and outcome were described at patient- and center levels. Between-center variation in the total ICU population was quantified with the median odds ratio (MOR), with correction for case-mix and random variation between centers.RESULTS: A total of 2138 patients were admitted to the ICU, with median age of 49 years; 36% of which were mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale; GCS 13-15). Within, 72 h 636 (30%) were discharged and 128 (6%) died. Early deaths and long-stay patients (> 72 h) had more severe injuries based on the GCS and neuroimaging characteristics, compared with short-stay patients. Long-stay patients received more monitoring and were treated at higher intensity, and experienced worse 6-month outcome compared to short-stay patients. Between-center variations were prominent in the proportion of short-stay patients (MOR = 2.3, p < 0.001), use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring (MOR = 2.5, p < 0.001) and aggressive treatments (MOR = 2.9, p < 0.001); and smaller in 6-month outcome (MOR = 1.2, p = 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: Half of contemporary TBI patients at the ICU have mild to moderate head injury. Substantial between-center variations exist in ICU stay and treatment policies, and less so in outcome. It remains unclear whether admission of short-stay patients represents appropriate prudence or inappropriate use of clinical resources.
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2.
  • Huijben, Jilske A., et al. (författare)
  • Development of a quality indicator set to measure and improve quality of ICU care for patients with traumatic brain injury
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Critical Care. - : BioMed Central. - 1364-8535 .- 1466-609X. ; 23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to develop a set of quality indicators for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in intensive care units (ICUs) across Europe and to explore barriers and facilitators for implementation of these quality indicators.Methods: A preliminary list of 66 quality indicators was developed, based on current guidelines, existing practice variation, and clinical expertise in TBI management at the ICU. Eight TBI experts of the Advisory Committee preselected the quality indicators during a first Delphi round. A larger Europe-wide expert panel was recruited for the next two Delphi rounds. Quality indicator definitions were evaluated on four criteria: validity (better performance on the indicator reflects better processes of care and leads to better patient outcome), feasibility (data are available or easy to obtain), discriminability (variability in clinical practice), and actionability (professionals can act based on the indicator). Experts scored indicators on a 5-point Likert scale delivered by an electronic survey tool.Results. The expert panel consisted of 50 experts from 18 countries across Europe, mostly intensivists (N=24, 48%) and neurosurgeons (N=7, 14%). Experts agreed on a final set of 42 indicators to assess quality of ICU care: 17 structure indicators, 16 process indicators, and 9 outcome indicators. Experts are motivated to implement this finally proposed set (N=49, 98%) and indicated routine measurement in registries (N=41, 82%), benchmarking (N=42, 84%), and quality improvement programs (N=41, 82%) as future steps. Administrative burden was indicated as the most important barrier for implementation of the indicator set (N=48, 98%).Conclusions: This Delphi consensus study gives insight in which quality indicators have the potential to improve quality of TBI care at European ICUs. The proposed quality indicator set is recommended to be used across Europe for registry purposes to gain insight in current ICU practices and outcomes of patients with TBI. This indicator set may become an important tool to support benchmarking and quality improvement programs for patients with TBI in the future.
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3.
  • Hutchinson, Peter J, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus statement from the 2014 International Microdialysis Forum
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 41:9, s. 1517-1528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microdialysis enables the chemistry of the extracellular interstitial space to be monitored. Use of this technique in patients with acute brain injury has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of several acute neurological disorders. In 2004, a consensus document on the clinical application of cerebral microdialysis was published. Since then, there have been significant advances in the clinical use of microdialysis in neurocritical care. The objective of this review is to report on the International Microdialysis Forum held in Cambridge, UK, in April 2014 and to produce a revised and updated consensus statement about its clinical use including technique, data interpretation, relationship with outcome, role in guiding therapy in neurocritical care and research applications.
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4.
  • Lilja, Gisela, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for outcome reporting and follow-up in the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 104-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The TTM2-trial is a multi-centre randomised clinical trial where targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C will be compared with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8 °C) after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). This paper presents the design and rationale of the TTM2-trial follow-up, where information on secondary and exploratory outcomes will be collected. We also present the explorative outcome analyses which will focus on neurocognitive function and societal participation in OHCA-survivors. Methods: Blinded outcome-assessors will perform follow-up at 30-days after the OHCA with a telephone interview, including the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Face-to-face meetings will be performed at 6 and 24-months, and include reports on outcome from several sources of information: clinician-reported: mRS, GOSE; patient-reported: EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level responses version (EQ-5D-5L), Life satisfaction, Two Simple Questions; observer-reported: Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Cardiac Arrest version (IQCODE-CA) and neurocognitive performance measures: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, (MoCA), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Exploratory analyses will be performed with an emphasis on brain injury in the survivors, where the two intervention groups will be compared for potential differences in neuro-cognitive function (MoCA, SDMT) and societal participation (GOSE). Strategies to increase inter-rater reliability and decrease missing data are described. Discussion: The TTM2-trial follow-up is a pragmatic yet detailed pre-planned and standardised assessment of patient's outcome designed to ensure data-quality, decrease missing data and provide optimal conditions to investigate clinically relevant effects of TTM, including OHCA-survivors’ neurocognitive function and societal participation.
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6.
  • Åkerlund, Cecilia A. I., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of duration and magnitude of raised intracranial pressure on outcome after severe traumatic brain injury : A CENTER-TBI high-resolution group study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnitude of intracranial pressure (ICP) elevations and their duration have been associated with worse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), however published thresholds for injury vary and uncertainty about these levels has received relatively little attention. In this study, we have analyzed high-resolution ICP monitoring data in 227 adult patients in the CENTER-TBI dataset. Our aim was to identify thresholds of ICP intensity and duration associated with worse outcome, and to evaluate the uncertainty in any such thresholds. We present ICP intensity and duration plots to visualize the relationship between ICP events and outcome. We also introduced a novel bootstrap technique to evaluate uncertainty of the equipoise line. We found that an intensity threshold of 18 ± 4 mmHg (2 standard deviations) was associated with worse outcomes in this cohort. In contrast, the uncertainty in what duration is associated with harm was larger, and safe durations were found to be population dependent. The pressure and time dose (PTD) was also calculated as area under the curve above thresholds of ICP. A relationship between PTD and mortality could be established, as well as for unfavourable outcome. This relationship remained valid for mortality but not unfavourable outcome after adjusting for IMPACT core variables and maximum therapy intensity level. Importantly, during periods of impaired autoregulation (defined as pressure reactivity index (PRx)>0.3) ICP events were associated with worse outcomes for nearly all durations and ICP levels in this cohort and there was a stronger relationship between outcome and PTD. Whilst caution should be exercised in ascribing causation in observational analyses, these results suggest intracranial hypertension is poorly tolerated in the presence of impaired autoregulation. ICP level guidelines may need to be revised in the future taking into account cerebrovascular autoregulation status considered jointly with ICP levels.
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7.
  • Böhm, Julia K., et al. (författare)
  • Global Characterisation of Coagulopathy in Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury (iTBI) : A CENTER-TBI Analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurocritical Care. - : Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag. - 1541-6933 .- 1556-0961.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to − 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
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8.
  • Rass, Verena, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of Temperature Increases on Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury : A Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury Substudy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 2153-7658 .- 2153-7933.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fever may aggravate secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to identify episodes of temperature increases through visual plot analysis and algorithm supported detection, and to describe associated patterns of changes in on brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2). Data derive from the high-resolution cohort of the multicenter prospective Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) study. Temperature increases (≥0.5°C) were visually identified in 33 patients within the first 11 days of monitoring. Generalized estimating equations were used to detect significant changes of systemic and neuromonitoring parameters from baseline to the highest temperature. Patients were median 50 (interquartile range [IQR], 35–62) years old, and presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (IQR, 4–10). In 202 episodes of temperature increases, mean temperature rose by 1.0°C ± 0.5°C within 4 hours. Overall, PbtO2 slightly increased (ΔPbtO2 = 0.9 ± 6.1 mmHg, p = 0.022) during temperature increases. PbtO2 increased in 35% (p < 0.001), was stable in 49% (p = 0.852), and decreased in 16% (p < 0.001) of episodes. During episodes of temperature increases and simultaneous drops in PbtO2, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) decreased (ΔCPP −6.3 ± 11.5 mmHg; p < 0.001). Brain tissue hypoxia (PbtO2 <20 mmHg) developed during 27/164 (17%) episodes of effervescences, in the remaining 38/202 episodes baseline PbtO2 was already <20 mmHg. Comparable results were found when using algorithm-supported detection of temperature increases. In conclusion, during effervescences, PbtO2 was mostly stable or slightly increased. A decrease of PbtO2 was observed in every sixth episode, where it was associated with a decrease in CPP. Our data highlight the need for special attention to CPP monitoring and maintenance during episodes of fever.
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9.
  • Wiegers, Eveline Janine Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Fluid balance and outcome in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury (CENTER-TBI and OzENTER-TBI) : a prospective, multicentre, comparative effectiveness study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 20:8, s. 627-638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy-the administration of fluids to maintain adequate organ tissue perfusion and oxygenation-is essential in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with traumatic brain injury. We aimed to quantify the variability in fluid management policies in patients with traumatic brain injury and to study the effect of this variability on patients' outcomes.METHODS: We did a prospective, multicentre, comparative effectiveness study of two observational cohorts: CENTER-TBI in Europe and OzENTER-TBI in Australia. Patients from 55 hospitals in 18 countries, aged 16 years or older with traumatic brain injury requiring a head CT, and admitted to the ICU were included in this analysis. We extracted data on demographics, injury, and clinical and treatment characteristics, and calculated the mean daily fluid balance (difference between fluid input and loss) and mean daily fluid input during ICU stay per patient. We analysed the association of fluid balance and input with ICU mortality and functional outcome at 6 months, measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Patient-level analyses relied on adjustment for key characteristics per patient, whereas centre-level analyses used the centre as the instrumental variable.FINDINGS: 2125 patients enrolled in CENTER-TBI and OzENTER-TBI between Dec 19, 2014, and Dec 17, 2017, were eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The median age was 50 years (IQR 31 to 66) and 1566 (74%) of patients were male. The median of the mean daily fluid input ranged from 1·48 L (IQR 1·12 to 2·09) to 4·23 L (3·78 to 4·94) across centres. The median of the mean daily fluid balance ranged from -0·85 L (IQR -1·51 to -0·49) to 1·13 L (0·99 to 1·37) across centres. In patient-level analyses, a mean positive daily fluid balance was associated with higher ICU mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1·10 [95% CI 1·07 to 1·12] per 0·1 L increase) and worse functional outcome (1·04 [1·02 to 1·05] per 0·1 L increase); higher mean daily fluid input was also associated with higher ICU mortality (1·05 [1·03 to 1·06] per 0·1 L increase) and worse functional outcome (1·04 [1·03 to 1·04] per 1-point decrease of the GOSE per 0·1 L increase). Centre-level analyses showed similar associations of higher fluid balance with ICU mortality (OR 1·17 [95% CI 1·05 to 1·29]) and worse functional outcome (1·07 [1·02 to 1·13]), but higher fluid input was not associated with ICU mortality (OR 0·95 [0·90 to 1·00]) or worse functional outcome (1·01 [0·98 to 1·03]).INTERPRETATION: In critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury, there is significant variability in fluid management, with more positive fluid balances being associated with worse outcomes. These results, when added to previous evidence, suggest that aiming for neutral fluid balances, indicating a state of normovolaemia, contributes to improved outcome.FUNDING: European Commission 7th Framework program and the Australian Health and Medical Research Council.
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