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Sökning: WFRF:(Heldin CH)

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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  • Carthy, Jon M., et al. (författare)
  • Chemical regulators of epithelial plasticity reveal a nuclear receptor pathway controlling myofibroblast differentiation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasticity in epithelial tissues relates to processes of embryonic development, tissue fibrosis and cancer progression. Pharmacological modulation of epithelial transitions during disease progression may thus be clinically useful. Using human keratinocytes and a robotic high-content imaging platform, we screened for chemical compounds that reverse transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition to TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitors, we identified small molecule epithelial plasticity modulators including a naturally occurring hydroxysterol agonist of the liver X receptors (LXRs), members of the nuclear receptor transcription factor family. Endogenous and synthetic LXR agonists tested in diverse cell models blocked alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, myofibroblast differentiation and function. Agonist-dependent LXR activity or LXR overexpression in the absence of ligand counteracted TGF-beta-mediated myofibroblast terminal differentiation and collagen contraction. The protective effect of LXR agonists against TGF-beta-induced pro-fibrotic activity raises the possibility that anti-lipidogenic therapy may be relevant in fibrotic disorders and advanced cancer.
  • Bergsten, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • PDGF-D is a specific, protease-activated ligand for the PDGF beta-receptor
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Nature Cell Biology. - : Macmillan Magazines Ltd. - 1465-7392 .- 1476-4679. ; 3:5, s. 512-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The term 'platelet-derived growth factor' (PDGF) refers to a family of disulphide-bonded dimeric isoforms that are important for growth, survival and function in several types of connective tissue cell. So far, three different PDGF chains have been identified - the classical PDGF-A and PDGF-B and the recently identified PDGF-C. PDGF isoforms (PDGF-AA, AB, BB and CC) exert their cellular effects by differential binding to two receptor tyrosine kinases. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) binds to all three PDGF chains, whereas the beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) binds only to PDGF-B. Gene-targeting studies using mice have shown that the genes for PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as the two PDGFR genes, are essential for normal development. Furthermore, overexpression of PDGFs is linked to different pathological conditions, including malignancies, atherosclerosis and fibroproliferative diseases. Here we have identify and characterize a fourth member of the PDGF family, PDGF-D. PDGF-D has a two-domain structure similar to PDGF-C and is secreted as a disulphide-linked homodimer, PDGF-DD. Upon limited proteolysis, PDGF-DD is activated and becomes a specific agonistic ligand for PDGFR-beta. PDGF-DD is the first known PDGFR-beta-specific ligand, and its unique receptor specificity indicates that it may be important for development and pathophysiology in several organs.
  • Burmakin, Mikhail, et al. (författare)
  • Imatinib increases oxygen delivery in extracellular matrix-rich but not in matrix-poor experimental carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Translational Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1479-5876. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Imatinib causes increased turnover of stromal collagen, reduces collagen fibril diameter, enhances extracellular fluid turnover and lowers interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in the human colonic carcinoma KAT-4/HT-29 (KAT-4) xenograft model. Methods: We compared the effects of imatinib on oxygen levels, vascular morphology and IFP in three experimental tumor models differing in their content of a collagenous extracellular matrix. Results: Neither the KAT4 and CT-26 colonic carcinoma models, nor B16BB melanoma expressed PDGF β-receptors in the malignant cells. KAT-4 tumors exhibited a well-developed ECM in contrast to the other two model systems. The collagen content was substantially higher in KAT-4 than in CT-26, while collagen was not detectable in B16BB tumors. The pO2 was on average 5.4, 13.9 and 19.3 mmHg in KAT-4, CT-26 and B16BB tumors, respectively. Treatment with imatinib resulted in similar pO2-levels in all three tumor models but only in KAT-4 tumors did the increase reach statistical significance. It is likely that after imatinib treatment the increase in pO2 in KAT-4 tumors is caused by increased blood flow due to reduced vascular resistance. This notion is supported by the significant reduction observed in IFP in KAT-4 tumors after imatinib treatment. Vessel area varied between 4.5 and 7% in the three tumor models and was not affected by imatinib treatment. Imatinib had no effect on the fraction of proliferating cells, whereas the fraction of apoptotic cells increased to a similar degree in all three tumor models. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the effects of imatinib on pO2-levels depend on a well-developed ECM and provide further support to the suggestion that imatinib acts by causing interstitial stroma cells to produce a less dense ECM, which would in turn allow for an increased blood flow. The potential of imatinib treatment to render solid tumors more accessible to conventional treatments would therefore depend on the degree of tumor desmoplasia.
  • Cunha, Sara I, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and pharmacological targeting of activin receptor-like kinase 1 impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - : The Rockefeller University Press. - 0022-1007 .- 1540-9538. ; 207:1, s. 85-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family have been genetically linked to vascular formation during embryogenesis. However, contradictory studies about the role of TGF-beta and other family members with reported vascular functions, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9, in physiological and pathological angiogenesis make the need for mechanistic studies apparent. We demonstrate, by genetic and pharmacological means, that the TGF-beta and BMP9 receptor activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 1 represents a new therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. Diminution of ALK1 gene dosage or systemic treatment with the ALK1-F(c) fusion protein RAP-041 retarded tumor growth and progression by inhibition of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of multistep tumorigenesis. Furthermore, RAP-041 significantly impaired the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic response toward vascular endothelial growth factor A and basic fibroblast growth factor. In seeking the mechanism for the observed effects, we uncovered an unexpected signaling synergy between TGF-beta and BMP9, through which the combined action of the two factors augmented the endothelial cell response to angiogenic stimuli. We delineate a decisive role for signaling by TGF-beta family members in tumor angiogenesis and offer mechanistic insight for the forthcoming clinical development of drugs blocking ALK1 in oncology.
  • Dahl, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-Tuning of Smad Protein Function by Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerases and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase during Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e103651-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Initiation, amplitude, duration and termination of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling via Smad proteins is regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation. We previously reported that ADP-ribosylation of Smads by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) negatively influences Smad-mediated transcription. PARP-1 is known to functionally interact with PARP-2 in the nucleus and the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) can remove poly(ADP-ribose) chains from target proteins. Here we aimed at analyzing possible cooperation between PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG in regulation of TGFβ signaling.METHODS:A robust cell model of TGFβ signaling, i.e. human HaCaT keratinocytes, was used. Endogenous Smad3 ADP-ribosylation and protein complexes between Smads and PARPs were studied using proximity ligation assays and co-immunoprecipitation assays, which were complemented by in vitro ADP-ribosylation assays using recombinant proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA levels and promoter-reporter assays provided quantitative analysis of gene expression in response to TGFβ stimulation and after genetic perturbations of PARP-1/-2 and PARG based on RNA interference.RESULTS:TGFβ signaling rapidly induces nuclear ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 that coincides with a relative enhancement of nuclear complexes of Smads with PARP-1 and PARP-2. Inversely, PARG interacts with Smads and can de-ADP-ribosylate Smad3 in vitro. PARP-1 and PARP-2 also form complexes with each other, and Smads interact and activate auto-ADP-ribosylation of both PARP-1 and PARP-2. PARP-2, similar to PARP-1, negatively regulates specific TGFβ target genes (fibronectin, Smad7) and Smad transcriptional responses, and PARG positively regulates these genes. Accordingly, inhibition of TGFβ-mediated transcription caused by silencing endogenous PARG expression could be relieved after simultaneous depletion of PARP-1.CONCLUSION:Nuclear Smad function is negatively regulated by PARP-1 that is assisted by PARP-2 and positively regulated by PARG during the course of TGFβ signaling.
  • Dubrovska, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • TGFbeta1/Smad3 counteracts BRCA1-dependent repair of DNA damage
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - 0950-9232 .- 1476-5594. ; 24:14, s. 2289-2297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inactivation of the BRCA1 gene has been found to confer susceptibility to early-onset familial breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 regulates DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and affects gene transcription. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a potent regulator of growth, apoptosis and invasiveness of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. Here we show that Smad3 which is a component of the TGFbeta signaling pathway, forms a complex with BRCA1 in vitro and in vivo. The interaction is mediated by the MH1 domain of Smad3 and the C-terminal part of BRCA1. We observed a co-localization of Smad3 and BRCA1 in nuclear complexes. We also found that TGFbeta1/Smad3 counteracted BRCA1-dependent repair of DNA double-strand breaks in human breast epithelial cells, as evaluated by BRCA1 nuclear foci formation, single-cell gel electrophoresis and cell survival assays. Thus, TGFbeta1/Smad3 suppresses BRCA1-dependent DNA repair in response to a DNA damaging agent.
  • Eichner, Annegret, et al. (författare)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (OP1) and transforming growth factor-beta1 modulate 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-induced differentiation of human osteoblasts
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - 0014-4827 .- 1090-2422. ; 275:1, s. 132-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) are potent regulators of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation, processes that are crucial in bone remodeling. BMPs and TGFbeta act in concert with other local factors and hormones, among them 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and insulin. Here we show that BMP7 inhibits 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-induced differentiation of human osteoblasts, whereas TGFbeta1 stimulates it, as assessed by assays for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction, matrix mineralization, and morphology changes. BMP7 or TGFbeta1 alone affects the differentiation of human osteoblasts. Similar results were obtained in assays for ALP induction using conditionally immortalized human osteoblasts (hFOB) and primary osteoblasts obtained from trabecular bone of the femoral head after hip replacement surgery. BMP7 stimulation led to a decrease of 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-induced binding of nuclear proteins to a vitamin D response element, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 modulates in opposite ways the effects of BMP7 and TGFbeta1 on osteoblast differentiation.
  • Hasumi, Yoko, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a subset of pericytes that respond to combination therapy targeting PDGF and VEGF signaling
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 121:12, s. 2606-2614
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of our study was to further explore the use of anti-angiogenic therapy targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) on endothelial cells while simultaneously targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) on adjacent pericytes. B16 mouse melanoma tumors exogenously expressing PDGF-BB (B16/PDGF-BB) display higher pericyte coverage on the vasculature compared to the parental B16 tumors (B16/mock). These models were used to investigate the effects of combination therapy targeting VEGFR and PDGFR signaling on size-matched tumors. Combination therapy using 25 mg/kg/day of the VEGFR inhibitor PTK787 and 100 mg/kg/day of the PDGFR inhibitor STI571 decreased the tumor growth rate of both tumor types, but the inhibition was only significant in the B16/PDGF-BB tumors. Combination therapy induced vessel remodeling, primarily by reducing the vessel density in B16/mock tumors, and by reducing the vessel size in B16/PDGF-BB tumors. When analyzing the effects of combination therapy on tumor vessel pericytes, it was found to primarily reduce the subpopulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin and PDGFRbeta-positive pericytes partly detached from the tumor vessels, without affecting the number of pericytes closely attached to the endothelium, which also express desmin. Taken together, these data demonstrate an increased benefit of targeting both VEGFR and PDGFR pathways in B16/PDGF-BB tumors, and demonstrates that the increased tumor growth inhibition in this model is accompanied by a reduction in a specific subset of pericytes, characterized by being loosely attached to endothelial cells and negative for the pericyte marker desmin.
  • Heldin, Carl-Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • High interstitial fluid pressure - an obstacle in cancer therapy.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nat Rev Cancer. - 1474-175X. ; 4:10, s. 806-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many solid tumours show an increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which forms a barrier to transcapillary transport. This barrier is an obstacle in tumour treatment, as it results in inefficient uptake of therapeutic agents. There are a number of factors that contribute to increased IFP in the tumour, such as vessel abnormalities, fibrosis and contraction of the interstitial matrix. Lowering the tumour IFP with specific signal-transduction antagonists might be a useful approach to improving anticancer drug efficacy.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 80
  • [1]234567...8Nästa

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