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1.
  • Baghaei, Fariba, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of women in relation to personality traits.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International journal of behavioral medicine. - 1070-5503. ; 10:4, s. 365-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The associations were examined in women between personality traits and steroid hormones, particularly androgens, as well as polymorphisms in genes regulating androgen concentration and effects. Women, all 42 years of age and premenopausal (n = 270), were recruited randomly. Conventional "masculine" and "feminine" personality traits were examined by questionnaire and set in relation to psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions, behavior in childhood, hormones, risk factors for disease, and polymorphisms in microsatellites in the CYP aromatase and the androgen receptor gene. The proportions of personality traits considered as being dominated by "masculinity" (M) or "femininity" (F) were 44.9%, respectively 15.0%, the rest consisting of a combination of M and F (33.2%) or "undifferentiated" (6.9%). M characteristics were positively associated with education, sporting, self-confidence, and good adaptation to work situation. M scores correlated with reports of "tomboyism" as girls. There was essentially no difference in hormones or disease risk factors between M and F women. The number of (CAG) repeats in the microsatellite of the transactivating domain of the androgen receptor was 19 (2.3; M and SD). M characteristics were more pronounced in the presence of longer repeat stretches (n > 20). No associations were found with F scores. There were no significant associations to the number of tetranucleotide repeats (TTTA) in the fourth introne of the aromatase gene. It was concluded that a majority of women showed M type of personality traits, associated with normal hormones, somatic health, and a long microsatellite in the transactivating domain of the AR gene.
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2.
  • Baghaei, Fariba, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • The lean woman.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Obesity research. - 1071-7323. ; 10:2, s. 115-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In the current obesity epidemic, the ability to remain lean is beginning to be uncommon. Therefore, it was considered of interest to characterize such subjects. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: From a population of premenopausal women (n = 270), all 40 years of age, those with a similar body mass index (BMI) as women at the age of 21 years, born the same year (BMI = 21.1 kg/m(2)) were selected among nonsmokers and compared with the remaining nonsmoking women. RESULTS: Lean women showed, as expected, low waist-to-hip circumference ratio and abdominal sagittal diameter as well as absence of other disease risk factors. Compared with the remaining women, 17 beta-estradiol was high and androgens were low, whereas insulin-like growth factor I and thyroid hormones showed no differences. Dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate was lower, whereas cortisol, measured in saliva repeatedly over a day, and adrenocorticotropin hormone were not different. Results from questionnaires indicated higher education and socioeconomic status, frequent sports activities, and better psychosocial adaptation and psychological health. A tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in the fourth [corrected] intron of the aromatase P450 gene was longer among the lean (187 base pairs) than the rest of the women. Women with opposite phylogenetic characteristic have a short microsatellite (168 base pairs) in this gene locus. DISCUSSION: Lean, nonsmoking women enjoy an excellent health in not only anthropometric and metabolic factors, but also in neuroendocrine, endocrine, and psychological variables. The endocrine measurements suggest a well-functioning aromatase, which in turn might have a genetic background, contributing to health. The aromatase gene might be important for regulation of body fat mass.
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3.
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4.
  • Lönnbro, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Heat production in chemically skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - The Physiological Society. - 1469-7793. ; 440, s. 385-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The rate of heat production of chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli smooth muscle at 25 degrees C was measured using microcalorimetric techniques. 2. Muscle strips were mounted isometrically and incubated in solutions containing MgATP (3.2 mM) and phosphocreatine (PCr, 12 mM), pH 6.9. Activation was obtained by the injection of Ca2+ into the sample compartment of the calorimeter. 3. The heat production rate of the resting preparation (pCa 9) was 0.40 +/- 0.03 mW g-1 wet weight (n = 23). During maximal activation (pCa 4.8) the heat rate increased to 1.12 +/- 0.07 mW g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 15). With stepwise increase in [Ca2+] from pCa 9 to 4.8 the energetic cost of force maintenance tended to increase at higher [Ca2+]. 4. After activation by Ca2+, the heat production rate reached its maximum while force was still increasing. 5. Changing ionic strength from 90 to 150 mM had no effect on either basal or activated heat rate. Oligomycin, amphotericin B and the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A had no effect on the basal heat rate. 6. Exchanging ATP in the incubation medium for inosine triphosphate (ITP) reduced the force and heat production after injection of Ca2+. The basal heat production was not lowered when ATP was exchanged for ITP. 7. The observed enthalpy change for PCr splitting at 25 degrees C (pH 6.9, ionic strength 90 mM) was -28 +/- 3 kJ mol-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9). After correction for the phosphate equilibrium, buffer reactions, and Mg2+ binding to PCr and HPO42-, the net enthalpy change is calculated to be -39 +/- 3 kJ mol-1. 8. Heat production in the skinned smooth muscle consists of one basal component present in relaxed muscle, and one component associated with contraction. The nature of the basal heat production is unclear but does not seem to involve turnover of phosphate on the myosin light chains. The increase in the energetic tension cost with increasing activation by Ca2+ has implications for the understanding of the contractile mechanism in smooth muscle.
5.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms are associated with anxiety-related personality traits in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American journal of medical genetics. - 0148-7299. ; 105:5, s. 458-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have reported an association between anxiety-related personality traits and a promoter polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR). In the present study, a population of 251 subjects was assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and genotyped both for the 5-HTTLPR and for a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the second intron of the same gene. The interpretation of previous studies has to some extent been confounded by the studied subjects differing with respect to ethnicity, sex, and age. To circumvent this problem, all included subjects were Caucasians, women, and born in the same year (1956). Associations were found between the 5-HTTLPR and four of the five anxiety-related KSP scales (psychic anxiety, muscular tension, psychasthenia, and lack of assertiveness), subjects being homozygous for the short allele displaying higher anxiety scores than those of the long/long or long/short genotype. In addition, an association was found between the intron 2 polymorphism and one anxiety-related personality trait (somatic anxiety).
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6.
  • Mårtensson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Deletion of the G protein-coupled Receptor GPR30 Impairs Glucose Tolerance, Reduces Bone Growth, Increases Blood Pressure, and Eliminates Estradiol-stimulated Insulin Release in Female Mice.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - Endocrine Society. - 0013-7227. ; 150:2, s. 687-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vitro studies suggest that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 is a functional estrogen receptor. However, the physiological role of GPR30 in vivo is unknown, and it remains to be determined if GPR30 is an estrogen receptor also in vivo. To this end, we studied the effects of disrupting the GPR30 gene in female and male mice. Female GPR30((-/-)) mice had hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, reduced body growth, increased blood pressure, and reduced serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. The reduced growth correlated with a proportional decrease in skeletal development. The elevated blood pressure was associated with an increased vascular resistance manifested as an increased media:lumen ratio of the resistance arteries. The hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in vivo were associated with decreased insulin expression and release in vivo and in vitro in isolated pancreatic islets. GPR30 is expressed in islets, and GPR30 deletion abolished estradiol-stimulated insulin release both in vivo in ovariectomized adult mice and in vitro in isolated islets. Our findings show that GPR30 is important for several metabolic functions in female mice including estradiol-stimulated insulin release.
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7.
  • Westberg, Lars, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 86:6, s. 2562-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the possible role of genetic variation in androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and ER beta on serum androgen levels in premenopausal women, the CAG repeat polymorphism of the AR gene, the TA repeat polymorphism of the ER alpha gene, and the CA repeat polymorphism of the ER beta gene were studied in a population-based cohort of 270 women. Total testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and sex steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in serum samples obtained in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with relatively few CAG repeats in the AR gene, resulting in higher transcriptional activity of the receptor, displayed higher levels of serum androgens, but lower levels of LH, than women with longer CAG repeat sequences. The CA repeat of the ER beta gene also was associated with androgen and SHBG levels; women with relatively short repeat regions hence displayed higher hormone levels and lower SHBG levels than those with many CA repeats. In contrast, the TA repeat of the ER alpha gene was not associated with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Our results suggest that the serum levels of androgens in premenopausal women may be influenced by variants of the AR gene and the ER beta gene, respectively.
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8.
  • Alajbegovic, Azra, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of microRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle by MRTF-A and actin polymerization
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research. - Elsevier. - 0167-4889. ; 1864:6, s. 1088-1098
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle cells play an important role in a number of cardiovascular disease states. The state of actin does not only mediate mechanical stability and contractile function but can also regulate gene expression via myocardin related transcription factors (MRTFs). These transcriptional co-activators regulate genes encoding contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in smooth muscle. Regulation of small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) by actin polymerization may mediate some of these effects. MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of target messenger RNA.In this study we aimed to determine a profile of miRNAs that were 1) regulated by actin/MRTF-A, 2) associated with the contractile smooth muscle phenotype and 3) enriched in muscle cells. This analysis was performed using cardiovascular disease-focused miRNA arrays in both mouse and human cells. The potential clinical importance of actin polymerization in aortic aneurysm was evaluated using biopsies from mildly dilated human thoracic aorta in patients with stenotic tricuspid or bicuspid aortic valve.By integrating information from multiple qPCR based miRNA arrays we identified a group of five miRNAs (miR-1, miR-22, miR-143, miR-145 and miR-378a) that were sensitive to actin polymerization and MRTF-A overexpression in both mouse and human vascular smooth muscle. With the exception of miR-22, these miRNAs were also relatively enriched in striated and/or smooth muscle containing tissues. Actin polymerization was found to be dramatically reduced in the aorta from patients with mild aortic dilations. This was associated with a decrease in actin/MRTF-regulated miRNAs.In conclusion, the transcriptional co-activator MRTF-A and actin polymerization regulated a subset of miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle. Identification of novel miRNAs regulated by actin/MRTF-A may provide further insight into the mechanisms underlying vascular disease states, such as aortic aneurysm, as well as novel ideas regarding therapeutic strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech.
9.
  • Albinsson, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial remodeling and plasma volume expansion in caveolin-1 deficient mice.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 0363-6119. ; 293, s. 1222-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caveolin- 1 ( Cav- 1) is essential for the morphology of membrane caveolae and exerts a negative influence on a number of signaling systems, including nitric oxide ( NO) production and activity of the MAP kinase cascade. In the vascular system, ablation of caveolin- 1 may thus be expected to cause arterial dilatation and increased vessel wall mass ( remodeling). This was tested in Cav- 1 knockout ( KO) mice by a detailed morphometric and functional analysis of mesenteric resistance arteries, shown to lack caveolae. Quantitative morphometry revealed increased media thickness and media- to- lumen ratio in KO. Pressure- induced myogenic tone and flow- induced dilatation were decreased in KO arteries, but both were increased toward wild- type ( WT) levels following NO synthase ( NOS) inhibition. Isometric force recordings following NOS inhibition showed rightward shifts of passive and active length- force relationships in KO, and the force response to alpha 1- adrenergic stimulation was increased. In contrast, media thickness and force response of the aorta were unaltered in KO vs. WT, whereas lumen diameter was increased. Mean arterial blood pressure during isoflurane anesthesia was not different in KO vs. WT, but greater fluctuation in blood pressure over time was noted. Following NOS inhibition, fluctuations disappeared and pressure increased twice as much in KO ( 38 +/- 6%) compared with WT ( 17 +/- 3%). Tracer- dilution experiments showed increased plasma volume in KO. We conclude that NO affects blood pressure more in Cav- 1 KO than in WT mice and that restructuring of resistance vessels and an increased responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation compensate for a decreased tone in Cav- 1 KO mice.
10.
  • Albinsson, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Differential dependence of stretch and shear stress signaling on caveolin-1 in the vascular wall
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 1522-1563. ; 294, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of caveolae in stretch- vs. flow-induced vascular responses was investigated using caveolin-1 deficient (KO) mice. Portal veins were stretched longitudinally for 5 min (acute) or 72 h (organ culture). Basal ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were increased in organ-cultured KO veins, as were protein synthesis and vessel wall cross-section. Stretch stimulated acute phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and long-term phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and cofilin, but did not affect Akt phosphorylation. Protein synthesis, and particularly synthesis of smooth muscle differentiation markers, was increased by stretch. These effects did not differ in portal veins from KO and control mice, which also showed the same contractile response to membrane depolarization and inhibition by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. KO carotid arteries had increased wall cross-section and responded to pressurization (120 mmHg) for 1 h with increased ERK1/2 but not Akt phosphorylation, similar to control arteries. Shear stress by flow for 15 min, on the other hand, increased phosphorylation of Akt in carotids from control but not KO mice. In conclusion, caveolin-1 contributes to a low basal ERK1/2 and Akt activity and is required for Akt-dependent signals in response to shear stress (flow), but is not essential for trophic effects of stretch (pressure) in the vascular wall. Key words: Hypertrophy, vasoconstriction, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, nitric oxide.
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