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1.
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2.
  • Couch, Fergus J, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10-8) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
3.
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4.
  • Dunning, Alison M, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
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5.
  • Haiman, Christopher A., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:12, s. 61-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 x 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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6.
  • Meyer, Kerstin B., et al. (författare)
  • Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 93:6, s. 1046-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER alpha to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
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7.
  • Purrington, Kristen S, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 23:22, s. 6034-6046
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2,156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n=39,067 cases; n=42,106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 (rs17550038: odds ratio (OR)=1.24, 95% CI 1.16-1.33, p=4.2x10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR=1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11, p=8.7x10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, p=7.9x10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high grade breast cancer risk (p=2.1x10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
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8.
  • Adloff, C, et al. (författare)
  • A measurement of the t dependence of the helicity structure of diffractive rho meson electroproduction at HERA
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 539:1-2, s. 25-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The helicity structure of the diffractive electroproduction of rho mesons, e + p --> e + rho + Y, is studied in a previously unexplored region of large four-momentum transfer squared at the proton vertex, t: 0 < t' < 3 GeV2, where t' = - min. The data used are collected with the HI detector at HERA in the kinematic domain 2.5 < Q(2) < 60 GeV2, 40 < W < 120 GeV No t dependence of the r(00)(04) spin density matrix element is found. A significant t dependent helicity non-conservation from the virtual photon to the rho meson is observed for the spin density matrix element combinations r(00)(5) + 2r(11)(5) and r(00)(1) + 2r(11)(1). These t dependences are consistently described by a perturbative QCD model based on the exchange of two gluons.
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9.
  • Adloff, C, et al. (författare)
  • Diffractive photoproduction of psi(2S) mesons at HERA
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 541:3-4, s. 251-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results on diffractive photoproduction of psi(2S) mesons are presented using data collected between 1996 and 2000 with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77 pb(-1). The energy dependence of the diffractive psi(2S) cross section is found to be similar to or possibly somewhat steeper than that for J/psi mesons. The dependences of the elastic and proton dissociative psi(2S) photoproduction cross sections on the squared momentum transfer t at the proton vertex are measured. The t-dependence of the elastic channel, parametrised as e(bt), yields b(el)(psi(2S)) = (4.31 +/- 0.57 +/- 0.46) GeV-2, compatible with that of the J/psi. For the proton dissociative channel the result b(pd)(psi(2S)) = (0.59 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.12) GeV-2 is 2.3 standard deviations smaller than that measured for the J/psi. With proper account of the individual wavefunctions theoretical predictions based on perturbative QCD are found to describe the measurements well. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Adloff, C, et al. (författare)
  • Energy flow and rapidity gaps between jets in photoproduction at HERA
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 24:4, s. 517-527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dijet events in photon-proton collisions in which there is a large pseudorapidity separation, Deltaeta > 2.5 between the two highest E-T jets are studied with the H1 detector at HERA. The inclusive dijet cross sections are measured as functions of the longitudinal momentum fractions of the proton and photon which participate in the production of the jets, x(p)(jets) and x(gamma)(jets) respectively, Deltaeta, the pseudorapidity P separation between the two highest E-T jets, and E-T(gap), the total summed transverse energy between the jets. Rapidity gap events are defined as events in which E-T(gap) is less than E-T(cut), for E-T(cut) varied between jets 0.5 and 2.0 GeV. The fraction of dijet events with a rapidity gap is measured differentially in Deltaeta, x(p)(jets) and x(gamma)(jets). An excess of events with rapidity gaps at low values of E-T(cut) is observed above the expectation from standard photoproduction processes. This excess can be explained by the exchange of a strongly interacting colour singlet object between the jets.
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