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Sökning: WFRF:(Henson Richard N.)

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  • Clark, Andrew G., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 450:7167, s. 203-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.
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4.
  • Lau-Zhu, Alex, et al. (författare)
  • Intrusive Memories and Voluntary Memory of a Trauma Film : Differential Effects of a Cognitive Interference Task After Encoding
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0096-3445 .- 1939-2222. ; 148:12, s. 2154-2180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methods to reduce intrusive memories (e.g., of traumatic events) should ideally spare voluntary memory for the same event (e.g., to report on the event in court). Single-trace memory accounts assume that interfering with a trace should impact both its involuntary and voluntary expressions, whereas separate-trace accounts assume these two can dissociate, allowing for selective interference. This possibility was investigated in 3 experiments. Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film followed by an interference task (Tetris game-play after reminder cues). Next, memory for the film was assessed with various measures. The interference task reduced the number of intrusive memories (diary-based, Experiments 1 and 2), but spared performance on well-matched measures of voluntary retrieval-free recall (Experiment 1) and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2)-challenging single-trace accounts. The interference task did not affect other measures of involuntary retrieval-perceptual priming (Experiment 1) or attentional bias (Experiment 2). However, the interference task did reduce the number of intrusive memories in a laboratory-based vigilance-intrusion task (Experiments 2 and 3), irrespective of concurrent working memory load during intrusion retrieval (Experiment 3). Collectively, results reveal a robust dissociation between intrusive and voluntary memories, having ruled out key methodological differences between how these two memory expressions are assessed, namely cue overlap (Experiment 1), attentional capture (Experiment 2), and retrieval load (Experiment 3). We argue that the inability of these retrieval factors to explain the selective interference is more compatible with separate-trace than single-trace accounts. Further theoretical developments are needed to account for this clinically important distinction between intrusive memories and their voluntary counterpart.
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5.
  • Visser, Renee M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple memory systems, multiple time points : how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - : ROYAL SOC. - 0962-8436 .- 1471-2970. ; 373:1742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'.
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6.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline in non-demented APOE ε4 carriers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2352-8729. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerated cognitive aging, and hippocampal atrophy, but its influence on the association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline in non-demented individuals remains unclear.Methods: We analyzed longitudinal (two to six observations) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–derived hippocampal volumes and episodic memory from 748 individuals (55 to 90 years at baseline, 50% female) from the European Lifebrain consortium.Results: The change-change association for hippocampal volume and memory was significant only in ε4 carriers (N = 173, r = 0.21, P = .007; non-carriers: N = 467, r = 0.073,P = .117). The linear relationship was significantly steeper for the carriers [t(629) =2.4, P = .013]. A similar trend toward a stronger change-change relation for carriers was seen in a subsample with more than two assessments.Discussion: These findings provide evidence for a difference in hippocampus-memory association between ε4 carriers and non-carriers, thus highlighting how genetic factors modulate the translation of the AD-related pathophysiological cascade into cognitive deficits.
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7.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Educational attainment does not influence brain aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Education has been related to various advantageous lifetime outcomes. Here, using longitudinal structural MRI data (4,422 observations), we tested the influential hypothesis that higher education translates into slower rates of brain aging. Cross-sectionally, education was modestly associated with regional cortical volume. However, despite marked mean atrophy in the cortex and hippocampus, education did not influence rates of change. The results were replicated across two independent samples. Our findings challenge the view that higher education slows brain aging.
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8.
  • Vidal-Pineiro, Didac, et al. (författare)
  • Individual variations in 'brain age' relate to early-life factors more than to longitudinal brain change
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - : eLife Sciences Publications. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain age is a widely used index for quantifying individuals’ brain health as deviation from a normative brain aging trajectory. Higher-than-expected brain age is thought partially to reflect above-average rate of brain aging. Here, we explicitly tested this assumption in two indepen-dent large test datasets (UK Biobank [main] and Lifebrain [replication]; longitudinal observations ≈ 2750 and 4200) by assessing the relationship between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of brain age. Brain age models were estimated in two different training datasets (n ≈ 38,000 [main] and 1800 individuals [replication]) based on brain structural features. The results showed no association between cross-sectional brain age and the rate of brain change measured longitudinally. Rather, brain age in adulthood was associated with the congenital factors of birth weight and polygenic scores of brain age, assumed to reflect a constant, lifelong influence on brain structure from early life. The results call for nuanced interpretations of cross-sectional indices of the aging brain and question their validity as markers of ongoing within-person changes of the aging brain. Longitudinal imaging data should be preferred whenever the goal is to understand individual change trajectories of brain and cognition in aging.
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