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1.
  • Strömsöe, A, et al. (författare)
  • Association between population density and reported incidence, characteristics and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - London : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 82:10, s. 1307-1313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To describe the reported incidence of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and the characteristics and outcome after OHCA in relation to population density in Sweden. Methods All patients participating in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register between 2008 and 2009 in (a) 20 of 21 regions (n = 6457) and in (b) 165 of 292 municipalities (n = 3522) in Sweden, took part in the survey. Results The regional population density varied between 3 and 310 inhabitants per km2 in 2009. In 2008–2009, the number of reported cardiac arrests varied between 13 and 52 per 100,000 inhabitants and year. Survival to 1 month varied between 2% and 14% during the same period in different regions. With regard to population density, based on municipalities, bystander CPR (p = 0.04) as well as cardiac etiology (p = 0.002) were more frequent in less populated areas. Ambulance response time was longer in less populated areas (p < 0.0001). There was no significant association between population density and survival to 1 month after OHCA or incidence (adjusted for age and gender) of OHCA. Conclusion There was no significant association between population density and survival to 1 month after OHCA or incidence (adjusted for age and gender) of OHCA. However, bystander CPR, cardiac etiology and longer response times were more frequent in less populated areas.
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2.
  • Sultanian, Pedram, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac arrest in COVID-19: characteristics and outcomes of in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A report from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the characteristics and outcome among cardiac arrest cases with COVID-19 and differences between the pre-pandemic and the pandemic period in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA).We included all patients reported to the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 1 January to 20 July 2020. We defined 16 March 2020 as the start of the pandemic. We assessed overall and 30-day mortality using Cox regression and logistic regression, respectively. We studied 1946 cases of OHCA and 1080 cases of IHCA during the entire period. During the pandemic, 88 (10.0%) of OHCAs and 72 (16.1%) of IHCAs had ongoing COVID-19. With regards to OHCA during the pandemic, the odds ratio for 30-day mortality in COVID-19-positive cases, compared with COVID-19-negative cases, was 3.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-11.64]; the corresponding hazard ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.13-1.85). Adjusted 30-day survival was 4.7% for patients with COVID-19, 9.8% for patients without COVID-19, and 7.6% in the pre-pandemic period. With regards to IHCA during the pandemic, the odds ratio for COVID-19-positive cases, compared with COVID-19-negative cases, was 2.27 (95% CI 1.27-4.24); the corresponding hazard ratio was 1.48 (95% CI 1.09-2.01). Adjusted 30-day survival was 23.1% in COVID-19-positive cases, 39.5% in patients without COVID-19, and 36.4% in the pre-pandemic period.During the pandemic phase, COVID-19 was involved in at least 10% of all OHCAs and 16% of IHCAs, and, among COVID-19 cases, 30-day mortality was increased 3.4-fold in OHCA and 2.3-fold in IHCA.
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3.
  • Djarv, T, et al. (författare)
  • Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016 - a population-based national cohort study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 26:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA).METHODS: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used.RESULTS: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively).DISCUSSION: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR.CONCLUSION: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.
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4.
  • Strömsöe, Anneli, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Education in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Sweden and its clinical consequences.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier Ireland Ltd. - 1873-1570 .- 0300-9572. ; 81:2, s. 211-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To describe the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training programmes in Sweden for 25 years and relate those to changes in the percentage of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) who receive bystander CPR.
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5.
  • Strömsöe, A, et al. (författare)
  • Validity of reported data in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register in selected parts in Sweden.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 84:7, s. 952-956
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To describe differences and similarities between reported and non-reported data in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register in selected parts in Sweden. METHODS: Prospective and retrospective data for treated OHCA patients in Sweden, 2008-2010, were compared in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register. Data were investigated in three Swedish counties, which represented one third of the population. The recording models varied. Prospective data are those reported by the emergency medical service (EMS) crews, while retrospective data are those missed by the EMS crews but discovered afterwards by cross-checking with the local ambulance register. RESULT: In 2008-2010, the number of prospectively (n=2398) and retrospectively (n=800) reported OHCA cases was n=3198, which indicates a 25% missing rate. When comparing the two groups, the mean age was higher in patients who were reported retrospectively (69 years vs. 67 years; p=0.003). There was no difference between groups with regard to gender, time of day and year of OHCA, witnessed status or initial rhythm. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was more frequent among patients who were reported prospectively (65% vs. 60%; p=0.023), whereas survival to one month was higher among patients who were reported retrospectively (9.2% vs. 11.9%; p=0.035). CONCLUSION: Among 3198 cases of OHCA in three counties in Sweden, 800 (25%) were not reported prospectively by the EMS crews but were discovered retrospectively as missing cases. Patients who were reported retrospectively differed from prospectively reported cases by being older, having less frequently received bystander CPR but having a higher survival rate. Our data suggest that reports on OHCA from national quality registers which are based on prospectively recorded data may be influenced by selection bias.
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6.
  • Thorén, A., et al. (författare)
  • ECG-monitoring of in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors associated with survival
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 130-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: ECG-monitoring is a strong predictor for 30-days survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The aim of the study is to investigate factors influencing the effect of ECG-monitoring on 30-days survival after IHCA and elements of importance in everyday clinical practice regarding whether patients are ECG-monitored prior to IHCA. Methods: In all, 19.225 adult IHCAs registered in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) were included. Cox-adjusted survival curves were computed to study survival post IHCA. Logistic regression was used to study the association between 15 predictors and 30-days survival. Using logistic regression we calculated propensity scores (PS) for ECG-monitoring; the PS was used as a covariate in a logistical regression estimating the association between ECG-monitoring and 30-days survival. Gradient boosting was used to study the relative importance of all predictors on ECG-monitoring. Results: Overall 30-days survival was 30%. The ECG-monitored group (n = 10.133, 52%) had a 38% lower adjusted mortality (HR 0.62 95% CI 0.60−0.64). We observed tangible variations in ECG-monitoring ratio at different centres. The predictors of most relative influence on ECG-monitoring in IHCA were location in hospital and geographical localization. Conclusion: ECG-monitoring in IHCA was associated to a 38% lower adjusted mortality, despite this finding only every other IHCA patient was monitored. The significant variability in the frequency of ECG-monitoring in IHCA at different centres needs to be evaluated in future research. Guidelines for in-hospital ECG-monitoring could contribute to an improved identification and treatment of patients at risk, and possibly to an improved survival. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
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7.
  • Torell, Matilda F, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is dependent on location: Sports arenas vs outside of arenas
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) seems to be increased if the cardiac arrests occurs in relation to exercise. Hypothetically, an exercise-related OHCA at a sports arena would have an even better prognosis, because of an increased likelihood of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and higher availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). The purpose of the study was to compare survival rates between exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas versus outside of sports arenas. Data from all treated exercise-related OHCA outside home reported to the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) from 2011 to 2014 in 10 counties of Sweden was analyzed (population 6 million). The registry has in those counties a coverage of almost 100% of all OHCAs. 3714 cases of OHCA outside of home were found. Amongst them, 268(7%) were exercise-related and 164 (61.2%) of those occurred at sports arenas. The 30-day survival rate was higher for exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas compared to outside (55.7% vs 30.0%, p<0.0001). OHCA-victims at sports arenas were younger (mean age +/- SD 57.6 +/- 16.3 years compared to 60.9 +/- 17.0 years, p = 0.05), less likely female (4.3% vs 12.2%, p = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of shockable rhythm (73.0% vs 54.3%, p = 0.004). OHCAs at arenas were more often witnessed (83.9% vs 68.9%, p = 0.007), received bystander CPR to a higher extent (90.0% vs 56.8%, p<0.0001) and the AED-use before EMS-arrival was also higher in this group (29.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.009). The prognosis is markedly better for exercise-related OHCA occurring at sports arenas compared to outside. Victims of exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas are more likely to receive bystander CPR and to be connected to a public AED. These findings support an increased use of public AEDs and implementation of Medical Action Plans (MAP), to possibly increase survival of exercise-related OHCA even further.
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8.
  • Adielsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest- A population-based registry study of nearly 24,000 cases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 157, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest, from a countrywide perspective. Methods: Patient information from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation was analysed in relation to monitoring level of ward and initial rhythm. The primary outcome was defined as survival at 30 days. Changes in survival and incidence of shockable rhythms were reported per year from 2008 to 2018. Also, epidemiological data were compared between two time periods, 2008-2013 and 2014-2018. Results: In all, 23,186 unique patients (38.6% female) were included in the study. The mean age was 72.6 (SD 13.2) years. Adjusted trends indicated an overall increase in 30-day survival from 24.7% in 2008 to 32.5% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 32.5% to 43.1% and on non-monitoring wards from 17.6% to 23.1%). The proportion of patients found in shockable rhythms decreased overall from 31.6% in 2008 to 23.6% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 42.5% to 35.8 % and on non-monitoring wards from 20.1% to 12.9%). Among the patients found in shockable rhythms, the proportion of patients defibrillated before the arrival of cardiac arrest team increased from 71.0% to 80.9%. Conclusions: In an 11-year perspective, resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden was characterised by an overall increase in the adjusted 30-day survival, despite a decrease in shockable rhythms. An increased proportion, among the patients found in a shockable rhythm, who were defibrillated before the arrival of a cardiac arrest team may have contributed to the finding.
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9.
  • Albert, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac arrest after pulmonary aspiration in hospitalised patients : a national observational study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and outcomes among patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) due to pulmonary aspiration.DESIGN: A retrospective observational study based on data from the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR).SETTING: The SRCR is a nationwide quality registry that covers 96% of all Swedish hospitals. Participating hospitals vary in size from secondary hospitals to university hospitals.PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients registered in the SRCR in the period 2008 to 2017. We compared patients with IHCA caused by pulmonary aspiration (n=127), to those with IHCA caused by respiratory failure of other causes (n=2197).PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was 30-day survival. Secondary outcome was sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) defined as ROSC at the scene and admitted alive to the intensive care unit.RESULTS: In the aspiration group 80% of IHCA occurred on general wards, as compared with 63.6% in the respiratory failure group (p<0.001). Patients in the aspiration group were less likely to be monitored at the time of the arrest (18.5% vs 38%, p<0.001) and had a significantly lower rate of sustained ROSC (36.5% vs 51.6%, p=0.001). The unadjusted 30-day survival rate compared with the respiratory failure group was 7.9% versus 18.0%, p=0.024. In a propensity score analysis (including variables; year, age, gender, location of arrest, initial heart rhythm, ECG monitoring, witnessed collapse and a previous medical history of; cancer, myocardial infarction or heart failure) the OR for 30-day survival was 0.46 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.94).CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital cardiac arrest preceded by pulmonary aspiration occurred more often on general wards among unmonitored patients. These patients had a lower 30-day survival rate compared with IHCA caused by respiratory failure of other causes.
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10.
  • Herlitz, Johan, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics and outcome amongst young adults suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation is attempted
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: J Intern Med. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 260:5, s. 435-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Amongst patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, young adults represent a minority. However, these victims suffer from the catastrophe when they are in a very active phase of life and have a long life expectancy. This survey aims to describe young adults in Sweden who suffer from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is attempted in terms of characteristics and outcome. DESIGN: Prospective and descriptive design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Young adults (18-35 years) who suffered from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom CPR was attempted and who were included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry between 1990 and 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival to 1 month. RESULTS: In all, 1105 young adults (3.1% of all the patients in the registry) were included, of which 29% were females, 51% were nonwitnessed and 15% had a cardiac aetiology. Only 17% were found in ventricular fibrillation, 53% received bystander CPR. The overall survival to 1 month was 6.3%. High survival was found amongst patients found in ventricular fibrillation (20.8%) and those with a cardiac aetiology (14.8%). Ventricular fibrillation at the arrival of the rescue team remained an independent predictor of an increased chance of survival (odds ratio: 7.43; 95% confidence interval: 3.44-16.65). CONCLUSION: Amongst young adults suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom CPR was attempted, a minority survived to 1 month. Subgroups with a higher survival could be defined (patients found in ventricular fibrillation and patients in whom there was a cardiac aetiology). However, only one independent predictor of an increased chance of survival could be demonstrated, i.e. ventricular fibrillation at the arrival of the rescue team.
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