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1.
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to guidelines is associated with improved survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 155, s. 13-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Most resuscitation guidelines have recommendations regarding maximum delay times from collapse to calling for the rescue team and initiation of treatment following cardiac arrest. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between adherence to guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and survival with a focus on delay to treatment. Methods: We used the Swedish Registry for CPR to study 3212 patients with a shockable rhythm and 9113 patients with non-shockable rhythm from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. Adult patients older than or equal to 18 years with a witnessed IHCA where resuscitation was initiated were included. We assessed trends in adherence to guidelines and their associations with 30-day survival and neurological function. Adherence to guidelines was defined as follows: time from collapse to calling for the rescue team and CPR within 1 min for non-shockable rhythms. For shockable rhythms, adherence was defined as the time from collapse to calling for the rescue team and CPR within 1 min and defibrillation within 3 min. Results: In patients with a shockable rhythm, the 30-day survival for those treated according to guidelines was 66.1%, as compared to 46.5% among those not treated according to guidelines on one or more parameters, adjusted odds ratio 1.84 (95% CI 1.52-2.22). Among patients with a non-shockable rhythm the 30-day survival for those treated according to guidelines was 22.8%, as compared to 16.0% among those not treated according to guidelines on one or more parameters, adjusted odds ratio 1.43 (95% CI 1.24-1.65). Neurological function (cerebral performance category 1-2) among survivors was better among patients treated in accordance with guidelines for both shockable (95.7% vs 91.1%, <0.001) and non-shockable rhythms (91.0% vs 85.5%, p < 0.008). Adherence to the Swedish guidelines for CPR increased slightly 2008-2017. Conclusions: Adherence to guidelines was associated with increased probability of survival and improved neurological function in patients with a shockable and non-shockable rhythm, respectively. Increased adherence to guidelines could increase cardiac arrest survival.
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2.
  • Holmgren, Christina M., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in Medication Preceding Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Where Resuscitation Was Attempted
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0160-2446 .- 1533-4023. ; 63:6, s. 497-503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To describe recent changes in medication preceding out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) where resuscitation was attempted. Methods: OHCA victims were identified by the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register and linked by means of their unique 10-digit personal identification numbers to the Prescribed Drug Register. We identified new claimed prescriptions during a 6-month period before the OHCA compared with those claimed in the period 12 to 18 months before. The 7-digit Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical codes of individual drugs were used. The study period was November 2007-January 2011. Results: OHCA victims with drugs were (1) older than those who did not claim any drugs in any period (70 +/- 16 years vs. 54 +/- 22 years, P < 0.001), (2) more often women (34% vs. 20%, P < 0.001), and (3) had more often a presumed cardiac etiology (67% vs. 54%, P < 0.001). The OHCA victims were less likely to have ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation as the first recorded ;rhythm (26% vs. 33%, P < 0.001) or to survive 1 month (9% vs. 17%, P < 0.0001). New prescriptions were claimed by 5122 (71%) of 7243 OHCA victims. The most frequently claimed new drugs were paracetamol (acetaminophen) 10.3%, furosemide 7.8%, and omeprazole 7.6%. Of drugs known or supposed to cause QT prolongation, ciprofloxacin was the most frequent (3.4%) altogether; 16% had a new claimed prescription of a drug included in the "qtdrugs.org" lists. Conclusions: Most OHCA victims had new drugs prescribed within 6 months before the event but most often intended for diseases other than cardiac. No claims can be made as to the causality.
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3.
  • Djarv, T, et al. (författare)
  • Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016 - a population-based national cohort study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 26:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA).METHODS: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used.RESULTS: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively).DISCUSSION: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR.CONCLUSION: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.
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4.
  • Hartford, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma renin activity has a complex prognostic role in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 329, s. 198-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Plasma renin activity (PRA) has been related to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, data from patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are sparse.METHODS: Determination of PRA was made in 550 patients with ACS, including a subgroup of 287 patients not on treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers or diuretics, and without heart failure. We evaluated the relations between PRA and all-cause mortality after three years and long-term, and to cardiovascular events after median 8.7 years. Adjustments were made for variables that influenced the hazard ratio (HR) > 5% for the relation between PRA and outcome.RESULTS: Baseline PRA was associated with all-cause mortality during three-years (unadjusted HR 1.74 per 1 SD increase in logarithmically transformed PRA; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.16, p < 0.0001) and long-term (HR 1.12, CI 1.00-1.25, p = 0.046). After adjustments, only the three-year association remained significant. In unadjusted analyses, PRA was associated with cardiovascular death, but not with nonfatal cardiovascular events. In the subgroup there was an inverse relation between PRA and long-term all-cause mortality.CONCLUSION: Higher PRA was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality after three years, but not at long-term follow-up and not significantly associated with cardiovascular incidence. The renin-angiotensin-system pathophysiology is of great interest, not least due to its association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings indicate a need for further research on the prognostic/predictive aspects of the renin-angiotensin-system in ACS.
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5.
  • Herlitz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of cardiac arrest and resuscitation by age group : an analysis from the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Emergency Medicine. - : W. B. Saunders Co.. - 0735-6757 .- 1532-8171. ; 25:9, s. 1025-1031
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: The objective of this study was to describe patients who experienced an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by age group.METHODS: All patients who suffered from an OHCA between 1990 and 2005 and are included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry (n = 40,503) were classified into the following age groups: neonates, younger than 1 year; young children, between 1 and 4 years; older children, between 5 and 12 years; adolescents, between 13 and 17 years; young adults, between 18 and 35 years; adults not retired, between 36 and 64 years; adults retired, between 65 and 79 years; and older adults, 80 years or older.RESULTS: Ventricular fibrillation was lowest in young children (3%) and highest in adults (35%). Survival to 1 month was lowest in neonates (2.6%) and highest in older children (7.8%). Children (<18 years), young adults (18-35 years), and adults (>35 years) survived to 1 month 24.5%, 21.2%, and 13.6% of cases, respectively (P = .0003 for trend) when found in a shockable rhythm. The corresponding figures for nonshockable rhythms were 3.8%, 3.2%, and 1.6%, respectively (P < .0001 for trend).CONCLUSIONS: There is a large variability in characteristics and outcome among patients in various age groups who experienced an OHCA. Among the large age groups, there was a successive decline in survival with increasing age in shockable and nonshockable rhythms.
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6.
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to guidelines is associated with improved survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 155, s. 13-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Most resuscitation guidelines have recommendations regarding maximum delay times from collapse to calling for the rescue team and initiation of treatment following cardiac arrest. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between adherence to guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and survival with a focus on delay to treatment. Methods: We used the Swedish Registry for CPR to study 3212 patients with a shockable rhythm and 9113 patients with non-shockable rhythm from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. Adult patients older than or equal to 18 years with a witnessed IHCA where resuscitation was initiated were included. We assessed trends in adherence to guidelines and their associations with 30-day survival and neurological function. Adherence to guidelines was defined as follows: time from collapse to calling for the rescue team and CPR within 1 min for non-shockable rhythms. For shockable rhythms, adherence was defined as the time from collapse to calling for the rescue team and CPR within 1 min and defibrillation within 3 min. Results: In patients with a shockable rhythm, the 30-day survival for those treated according to guidelines was 66.1%, as compared to 46.5% among those not treated according to guidelines on one or more parameters, adjusted odds ratio 1.84 (95% CI 1.52-2.22). Among patients with a non-shockable rhythm the 30-day survival for those treated according to guidelines was 22.8%, as compared to 16.0% among those not treated according to guidelines on one or more parameters, adjusted odds ratio 1.43 (95% CI 1.24-1.65). Neurological function (cerebral performance category 1-2) among survivors was better among patients treated in accordance with guidelines for both shockable (95.7% vs 91.1%, <0.001) and non-shockable rhythms (91.0% vs 85.5%, p < 0.008). Adherence to the Swedish guidelines for CPR increased slightly 2008-2017. Conclusions: Adherence to guidelines was associated with increased probability of survival and improved neurological function in patients with a shockable and non-shockable rhythm, respectively. Increased adherence to guidelines could increase cardiac arrest survival.
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7.
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Factors of importance to 30-day survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden - A population-based register study of more than 18,000 cases.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International journal of cardiology. - 1874-1754 .- 1874-1754 .- 0167-5273. ; 255, s. 237-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) constitutes a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors of importance to 30-day survival after IHCA in Sweden.A retrospective register study based on the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCPR) 2006-2015. Sixty-six of 73 hospitals in Sweden participated. The inclusion criterion was a confirmed cardiac arrest in which resuscitation was attempted among patients aged >18years.In all, 18,069 patients were included, 39% of whom were women. The median age was 75years. Thirty-day survival was 28.3%, 93% with a CPC score of 1-2. One-year survival was 25.0%. Overall IHCA incidence in Sweden was 1.7 per 1000 hospital admissions. Several factors were found to be associated with 30-day survival in a multivariable analysis. They included cardiac arrest (CA) at working days during the daytime (08-20) compared with weekends and night-time (20-08) (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.39-1.64), monitored CA (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.99-2.38), witnessed CA (OR 2.87 95% CI 2.48-3.32) and if the first recorded rhythm was ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, especially in combination with myocardial ischemia/infarction as the assumed aetiology of the CA (OR for interaction 4.40 95% CI 3.54-5.46).30-day survival after IHCA is associated with the time of the event, the aetiology of the CA and the degree of monitoring and this should influence decisions regarding the appropriate level of monitoring and care.
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8.
  • Holmen, J., et al. (författare)
  • Shortening Ambulance Response Time Increases Survival in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : Wiley Blackwell. - 2047-9980. ; 9:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The ambulance response time in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has doubled over the past 30 years in Sweden. At the same time, the chances of surviving an OHCA have increased substantially. A correct understanding of the effect of ambulance response time on the outcome after OHCA is fundamental for further advancement in cardiac arrest care. Methods and Results We used data from the SRCR (Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) to determine the effect of ambulance response time on 30-day survival after OHCA. We included 20 420 cases of OHCA occurring in Sweden between 2008 and 2017. Survival to 30 days was our primary outcome. Stratification and multiple logistic regression were used to control for confounding variables. In a model adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, and place of collapse, survival to 30 days is presented for 4 different groups of emergency medical services (EMS)-crew response time: 0 to 6 minutes, 7 to 9 minutes, 10 to 15 minutes, and >15 minutes. Survival to 30 days after a witnessed OHCA decreased as ambulance response time increased. For EMS response times of >10 minutes, the overall survival among those receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation before EMS arrival was slightly higher than survival for the sub-group of patients treated with compressions-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions Survival to 30 days after a witnessed OHCA decreases as ambulance response times increase. This correlation was seen independently of initial rhythm and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed before EMS-crew arrival. Shortening EMS response times is likely to be a fast and effective way of increasing survival in OHCA.
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9.
  • Thorén, A., et al. (författare)
  • ECG-monitoring of in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors associated with survival
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 130-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: ECG-monitoring is a strong predictor for 30-days survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The aim of the study is to investigate factors influencing the effect of ECG-monitoring on 30-days survival after IHCA and elements of importance in everyday clinical practice regarding whether patients are ECG-monitored prior to IHCA. Methods: In all, 19.225 adult IHCAs registered in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) were included. Cox-adjusted survival curves were computed to study survival post IHCA. Logistic regression was used to study the association between 15 predictors and 30-days survival. Using logistic regression we calculated propensity scores (PS) for ECG-monitoring; the PS was used as a covariate in a logistical regression estimating the association between ECG-monitoring and 30-days survival. Gradient boosting was used to study the relative importance of all predictors on ECG-monitoring. Results: Overall 30-days survival was 30%. The ECG-monitored group (n = 10.133, 52%) had a 38% lower adjusted mortality (HR 0.62 95% CI 0.60−0.64). We observed tangible variations in ECG-monitoring ratio at different centres. The predictors of most relative influence on ECG-monitoring in IHCA were location in hospital and geographical localization. Conclusion: ECG-monitoring in IHCA was associated to a 38% lower adjusted mortality, despite this finding only every other IHCA patient was monitored. The significant variability in the frequency of ECG-monitoring in IHCA at different centres needs to be evaluated in future research. Guidelines for in-hospital ECG-monitoring could contribute to an improved identification and treatment of patients at risk, and possibly to an improved survival. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
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10.
  • Adielsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest- A population-based registry study of nearly 24,000 cases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 157, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest, from a countrywide perspective. Methods: Patient information from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation was analysed in relation to monitoring level of ward and initial rhythm. The primary outcome was defined as survival at 30 days. Changes in survival and incidence of shockable rhythms were reported per year from 2008 to 2018. Also, epidemiological data were compared between two time periods, 2008-2013 and 2014-2018. Results: In all, 23,186 unique patients (38.6% female) were included in the study. The mean age was 72.6 (SD 13.2) years. Adjusted trends indicated an overall increase in 30-day survival from 24.7% in 2008 to 32.5% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 32.5% to 43.1% and on non-monitoring wards from 17.6% to 23.1%). The proportion of patients found in shockable rhythms decreased overall from 31.6% in 2008 to 23.6% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 42.5% to 35.8 % and on non-monitoring wards from 20.1% to 12.9%). Among the patients found in shockable rhythms, the proportion of patients defibrillated before the arrival of cardiac arrest team increased from 71.0% to 80.9%. Conclusions: In an 11-year perspective, resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden was characterised by an overall increase in the adjusted 30-day survival, despite a decrease in shockable rhythms. An increased proportion, among the patients found in a shockable rhythm, who were defibrillated before the arrival of a cardiac arrest team may have contributed to the finding.
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