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  • Djarv, T, et al. (författare)
  • Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016 - a population-based national cohort study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 26:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA).METHODS: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used.RESULTS: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively).DISCUSSION: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR.CONCLUSION: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.
  • Hartford, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma renin activity has a complex prognostic role in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 329, s. 198-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Plasma renin activity (PRA) has been related to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, data from patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are sparse.METHODS: Determination of PRA was made in 550 patients with ACS, including a subgroup of 287 patients not on treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers or diuretics, and without heart failure. We evaluated the relations between PRA and all-cause mortality after three years and long-term, and to cardiovascular events after median 8.7 years. Adjustments were made for variables that influenced the hazard ratio (HR) > 5% for the relation between PRA and outcome.RESULTS: Baseline PRA was associated with all-cause mortality during three-years (unadjusted HR 1.74 per 1 SD increase in logarithmically transformed PRA; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.16, p < 0.0001) and long-term (HR 1.12, CI 1.00-1.25, p = 0.046). After adjustments, only the three-year association remained significant. In unadjusted analyses, PRA was associated with cardiovascular death, but not with nonfatal cardiovascular events. In the subgroup there was an inverse relation between PRA and long-term all-cause mortality.CONCLUSION: Higher PRA was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality after three years, but not at long-term follow-up and not significantly associated with cardiovascular incidence. The renin-angiotensin-system pathophysiology is of great interest, not least due to its association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings indicate a need for further research on the prognostic/predictive aspects of the renin-angiotensin-system in ACS.
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Factors of importance to 30-day survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden - A population-based register study of more than 18,000 cases.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International journal of cardiology. - 1874-1754 .- 1874-1754 .- 0167-5273. ; 255, s. 237-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) constitutes a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors of importance to 30-day survival after IHCA in Sweden.A retrospective register study based on the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCPR) 2006-2015. Sixty-six of 73 hospitals in Sweden participated. The inclusion criterion was a confirmed cardiac arrest in which resuscitation was attempted among patients aged >18years.In all, 18,069 patients were included, 39% of whom were women. The median age was 75years. Thirty-day survival was 28.3%, 93% with a CPC score of 1-2. One-year survival was 25.0%. Overall IHCA incidence in Sweden was 1.7 per 1000 hospital admissions. Several factors were found to be associated with 30-day survival in a multivariable analysis. They included cardiac arrest (CA) at working days during the daytime (08-20) compared with weekends and night-time (20-08) (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.39-1.64), monitored CA (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.99-2.38), witnessed CA (OR 2.87 95% CI 2.48-3.32) and if the first recorded rhythm was ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, especially in combination with myocardial ischemia/infarction as the assumed aetiology of the CA (OR for interaction 4.40 95% CI 3.54-5.46).30-day survival after IHCA is associated with the time of the event, the aetiology of the CA and the degree of monitoring and this should influence decisions regarding the appropriate level of monitoring and care.
  • Thorén, A., et al. (författare)
  • ECG-monitoring of in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors associated with survival
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 130-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: ECG-monitoring is a strong predictor for 30-days survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The aim of the study is to investigate factors influencing the effect of ECG-monitoring on 30-days survival after IHCA and elements of importance in everyday clinical practice regarding whether patients are ECG-monitored prior to IHCA. Methods: In all, 19.225 adult IHCAs registered in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) were included. Cox-adjusted survival curves were computed to study survival post IHCA. Logistic regression was used to study the association between 15 predictors and 30-days survival. Using logistic regression we calculated propensity scores (PS) for ECG-monitoring; the PS was used as a covariate in a logistical regression estimating the association between ECG-monitoring and 30-days survival. Gradient boosting was used to study the relative importance of all predictors on ECG-monitoring. Results: Overall 30-days survival was 30%. The ECG-monitored group (n = 10.133, 52%) had a 38% lower adjusted mortality (HR 0.62 95% CI 0.60−0.64). We observed tangible variations in ECG-monitoring ratio at different centres. The predictors of most relative influence on ECG-monitoring in IHCA were location in hospital and geographical localization. Conclusion: ECG-monitoring in IHCA was associated to a 38% lower adjusted mortality, despite this finding only every other IHCA patient was monitored. The significant variability in the frequency of ECG-monitoring in IHCA at different centres needs to be evaluated in future research. Guidelines for in-hospital ECG-monitoring could contribute to an improved identification and treatment of patients at risk, and possibly to an improved survival. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
  • Adielsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest- A population-based registry study of nearly 24,000 cases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 157, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine changes over time in 30-day survival and the incidence of shockable rhythms after in-hospital cardiac arrest, from a countrywide perspective. Methods: Patient information from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation was analysed in relation to monitoring level of ward and initial rhythm. The primary outcome was defined as survival at 30 days. Changes in survival and incidence of shockable rhythms were reported per year from 2008 to 2018. Also, epidemiological data were compared between two time periods, 2008-2013 and 2014-2018. Results: In all, 23,186 unique patients (38.6% female) were included in the study. The mean age was 72.6 (SD 13.2) years. Adjusted trends indicated an overall increase in 30-day survival from 24.7% in 2008 to 32.5% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 32.5% to 43.1% and on non-monitoring wards from 17.6% to 23.1%). The proportion of patients found in shockable rhythms decreased overall from 31.6% in 2008 to 23.6% in 2018, (on monitoring wards from 42.5% to 35.8 % and on non-monitoring wards from 20.1% to 12.9%). Among the patients found in shockable rhythms, the proportion of patients defibrillated before the arrival of cardiac arrest team increased from 71.0% to 80.9%. Conclusions: In an 11-year perspective, resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden was characterised by an overall increase in the adjusted 30-day survival, despite a decrease in shockable rhythms. An increased proportion, among the patients found in a shockable rhythm, who were defibrillated before the arrival of a cardiac arrest team may have contributed to the finding.
  • Al-Dury, Nooraldeen, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying the relative importance of predictors of survival in out of hospital cardiac arrest : a machine learning study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 28:1, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Studies examining the factors linked to survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have either aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of OHCA in different parts of the world, or focused on certain factors and whether they were associated with survival. Unfortunately, this approach does not measure how strong each factor is in predicting survival after OHCA. Aim: To investigate the relative importance of 16 well-recognized factors in OHCA at the time point of ambulance arrival, and before any interventions or medications were given, by using a machine learning approach that implies building models directly from the data, and arranging those factors in order of importance in predicting survival. Methods: Using a data-driven approach with a machine learning algorithm, we studied the relative importance of 16 factors assessed during the pre-hospital phase of OHCA We examined 45,000 cases of OHCA between 2008 and 2016. Results: Overall, the top five factors to predict survival in order of importance were: initial rhythm, age, early Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, time to CPR and CPR before arrival of EMS), time from EMS dispatch until EMS arrival, and place of cardiac arrest The largest difference in importance was noted between initial rhythm and the remaining predictors. A number of factors, including time of arrest and sex were of little importance. Conclusion: Using machine learning, we confirm that the most important predictor of survival in OHCA is initial rhythm, followed by age, time to start of CPR, EMS response time and place of OHCA. Several factors traditionally viewed as important e.g. sex, were of little importance.
  • Albert, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac arrest after pulmonary aspiration in hospitalised patients : a national observational study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and outcomes among patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) due to pulmonary aspiration.DESIGN: A retrospective observational study based on data from the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR).SETTING: The SRCR is a nationwide quality registry that covers 96% of all Swedish hospitals. Participating hospitals vary in size from secondary hospitals to university hospitals.PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients registered in the SRCR in the period 2008 to 2017. We compared patients with IHCA caused by pulmonary aspiration (n=127), to those with IHCA caused by respiratory failure of other causes (n=2197).PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was 30-day survival. Secondary outcome was sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) defined as ROSC at the scene and admitted alive to the intensive care unit.RESULTS: In the aspiration group 80% of IHCA occurred on general wards, as compared with 63.6% in the respiratory failure group (p<0.001). Patients in the aspiration group were less likely to be monitored at the time of the arrest (18.5% vs 38%, p<0.001) and had a significantly lower rate of sustained ROSC (36.5% vs 51.6%, p=0.001). The unadjusted 30-day survival rate compared with the respiratory failure group was 7.9% versus 18.0%, p=0.024. In a propensity score analysis (including variables; year, age, gender, location of arrest, initial heart rhythm, ECG monitoring, witnessed collapse and a previous medical history of; cancer, myocardial infarction or heart failure) the OR for 30-day survival was 0.46 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.94).CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital cardiac arrest preceded by pulmonary aspiration occurred more often on general wards among unmonitored patients. These patients had a lower 30-day survival rate compared with IHCA caused by respiratory failure of other causes.
  • Alfredsson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
  • Bång, Angela, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Lower mortality after prehospital recognition and treatment followed by fast tracking to coronary care compared with admittance via emergency department in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International journal of cardiology. - : Elsevier Ireland Ltd. - 1874-1754 .- 0167-5273. ; 129:3, s. 325-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To describe the short-and long-term outcome among patients with an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), assessed and treated by the emergency medical services (EMS) in relation to whether they were fast tracked to a coronary care unit (CCU) or admitted via the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to the CCU at Sahlgrenska University Hospital with ST elevations on admission ECG were analysed with respect to whether they by the EMS were fast tracked to the CCU or the adjacent coronary angiography laboratory (direct CCU group; n=261) or admitted via the ED (ED group; n=235). RESULTS: Whereas the two groups were similar with regard to age and previous history, those who were fast tracked to CCU were more frequently than the ED patients diagnosed and treated as STEMI already prior to hospital admission. Reperfusion therapy was more commonly applied in the CCU group compared with the ED group (90% vs 67%; <0.0001). The delay times (median) were shorter in the direct CCU group than in the ED group, with a difference of 10 min from the onset of symptoms to arrival in hospital and 25 min from hospital arrival to the start of reperfusion treatment (primary PCI or in-hospital fibrinolysis). Patients in the direct CCU group had lower 30-day mortality (7.3% vs. 15.3%; p=0.004), as well as late mortality (>30 days to five years) (11.6% vs. 20.6%; p=0.008). CONCLUSION: Among patients transported with ambulance due to STEMI there was a significant association between early recognition and treatment followed by fast tracking to the CCU and long term survival. A higher rate of and a more rapid revascularisation were probably of significant importance for the outcome.
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