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  • Blomqvist, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. - 2000-8686. ; 2, s. 8435-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.
  • Eriksson, Ronnie, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplex and quantifiable detection of nucleic acid from pathogenic fungi using padlock probes, generic real-time PCR and specific suspension array readout
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Microbiological Methods. - : Elsevier. - 0167-7012 .- 1872-8359. ; 78:2, s. 195-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new concept for multiplex detection and quantification of microbes is here demonstrated on a range of infectious fungal species. Padlock probe methodology in conjunction with qPCR and Luminex™ technology was used for simultaneous detection of ten fungal species in one single experiment. By combining the multiplexing properties of padlock probes and Luminex™ detection with the well established quantitative characteristics of qPCR, quantitative microbe detection was done in 10-plex mode. A padlock probe is an oligonucleotide that via a ligation reaction forms circular DNA when hybridizing to specific target DNA. The region of the padlock probe that does not participate in target DNA hybridization contains generic primer sequences for amplification and a tag sequence for Luminex™ detection. This was the fundament for well performing multiplexing. Circularized padlock probes were initially amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA), followed by a SybrGreen™ real time PCR which allowed an additive quantitative assessment of target DNA in the sample. Detection and quantification of amplified padlock probes were then done on color coded Luminex™ microspheres carrying anti-tag sequences. A novel technique, using labeled oligonucleotides to prevent reannealing of amplimers by covering the flanks of the address sequence, improved the signal to noise ratio in the detection step considerably. The method correctly detected fungi in a variety of clinical samples and offered quantitative information on fungal nucleic acid.
  • Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Health evaluation of wild gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the Antarctic Peninsula
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Polar Biology. - 0722-4060 .- 1432-2056. ; 36:12, s. 1749-1760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Historically wildlife conservation was based on habitat protection and exploitation control. Only recently have diseases been considered an important issue. However, pathogens are usually described during or after disease outbreaks, but to determine which pathogens may be emerging, surveys of wildlife health are critical in a given time. This study deals with the health status of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in two localities at the Antarctica Peninsula and one at Ardley Island off the South Shetland Islands. Cloacal swaps, fresh fecal samples, ectoparasites, and blood smears were collected. We examined and dissected 14 penguin corpses found dead. Fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and in the carcasses four endoparasitic species were found: Diphyllobothrium sp. and Parorchites zederi, Corynosoma shackletoni and Stegophorus adeliae. The tick Ixodes uriae occurred in five of the examined penguins, and the louse Austrogoniodes gressitti on six birds. From the colony grounds, we collected 1,184 I. uriae. We recorded antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as E. coli, in ecosystems where gentoo penguins breed. Cloacal samples (300) were negative for Chlamydia, as well as for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Newcastle and Influenza viruses.
  • Hässler, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Aire deficient mice develop hematopoetic irregularities and marginal zone B cell lymphoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 108:6, s. 1941-1948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is an inherited recessive disorder with a progressive immunological destruction of many tissues including the adrenal cortex, the parathyroid glands, and the gonads. APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene (autoimmune regulator), expressed in cells of the thymus and spleen, suggesting a role in central and peripheral tolerance. Aire(-/-) mice replicate the autoimmune features of APS I patients with the presence of multiple autoantibodies and lymphocytic infiltrates in various tissues, but young mice appear clinically healthy. We here report the investigation of 15- to 24-month-old Aire(-/-) mice. We did not observe any endocrinological abnormalities, nor did sera from these mice recognize known APS I autoantigens. Interestingly, however, there was a high frequency of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in Aire(-/-) mice and liver infiltrates of B cells, suggesting chronic antigen exposure and exaggerated activation. Furthermore, increased numbers of monocytes in blood were identified as well as augmented numbers of metallophilic macrophages in the spleen. We propose that Aire, in addition to its function in the thymus, also has a peripheral regulatory role by controlling the development of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and marginal zone B-cell activation.
  • Innings, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplex real-time PCR targeting the RNase P RNA gene for detection and identification of Candida species in blood
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. - 0095-1137 .- 1098-660X. ; 45:3, s. 874-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR method for the detection of the eight most common Candida species causing septicemia: Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. The method developed targets the RNase P RNA gene RPR1. Sequences of this geiie were determined for seven of the Candida species and showed surprisiRgly large sequence variation. C. glabrata was found to have a gene that was five times longer gene than those of the other species, and the nucleotide sequence similarity between C. krusei and C. albicans was as low as 55%. The multiplex PCR contained three probes that enabled the specific detection of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei and a fourth probe that allowed the general detection of the remaining species. The method was able to detect 1 to 10 genome copies when the detection limit was tested repeatedly for the four species C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. guilliermondii. No significant difference in the detection limit was seen when the multiplex format was compared with single-species PCR, i.e., two primers and one probe. The method detected eight clinically relevant Candida species and did not react with other tested non-Candida species or human DNA. The assay was applied to 20 blood samples from nine patients and showed a sensitivity similar to that of culture. Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
  • Isaksson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium, but no Chlamydia psittaci, in sea birds from Antarctica
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Polar Biology. - 0722-4060 .- 1432-2056. ; 38:11, s. 1931-1936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within the growing order of Chlamydiales, there are a number of pathogens. One is Chlamydia psittaci, a zoonotic pathogen, with birds as natural hosts that may be transmitted to humans and cause severe respiratory disease, psittacosis. The prevalence of this pathogen in Antarctic birds is almost unknown as well as the ramifications of its potential spread in na < ve bird populations. To investigate the prevalence of chlamydia organisms, cloacal and fecal samples were collected from 264 penguins and 263 seabirds on the Antarctic Peninsula and in Southern Chile. No C. psittaci could be detected by 23S rRNA real-time PCR. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA 298-bp signature sequence revealed a Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium previously found in seabirds from the subarctic zone, demonstrating that this not yet fully characterized bacterium is widespread. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. psittaci among wild birds on the Antarctic Peninsula seems to be low, but other types of chlamydial organisms are common. Further studies are required to taxonomically define and finally understand the role of these non-classified Chlamydiae.
  • Abdeldaim, Guma M. K., et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. - : Elsevier. - 0732-8893 .- 1879-0070. ; 76:2, s. 141-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.
  • Alpkvist, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and Microbiological Factors Associated with High Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density in Patients with Pneumococcal Pneumonia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 10:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to study if certain clinical and/or microbiological factors are associated with a high nasopharyngeal (NP) density of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal pneumonia. In addition, we aimed to study if a high NP pneumococcal density could be useful to detect severe pneumococcal pneumonia.Methods: Adult patients hospitalized for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were included in a prospective study. NP aspirates were collected at admission and were subjected to quantitative PCR for pneumococcal DNA (Spn9802 DNA). Patients were considered to have pneumococcal etiology if S. pneumoniae was detected in blood culture and/ or culture of respiratory secretions and/or urinary antigen test.Results: Of 166 included patients, 68 patients had pneumococcal DNA detected in NP aspirate. Pneumococcal etiology was noted in 57 patients (84%) with positive and 8 patients (8.2%) with negative test for pneumococcal DNA (p<0.0001). The median NP pneumococcal density of DNA positive patients with pneumococcal etiology was 6.83 log(10) DNA copies/mL (range 1.79-9.50). In a multivariate analysis of patients with pneumococcal etiology, a high pneumococcal density was independently associated with severe pneumonia (Pneumonia Severity Index risk class IV-V), symptom duration >= 2 days prior to admission, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient's own pneumococcal serotype. NP pneumococcal density was not associated with sex, age, smoking, co-morbidity, viral co-infection, pneumococcal serotype, or bacteremia. Severe pneumococcal pneumonia was noted in 28 study patients. When we studied the performance of PCR with different DNA cut-off levels for detection of severe pneumococcal pneumonia, we found sensitivities of 54-82% and positive predictive values of 37-56%, indicating suboptimal performance.Conclusions: Pneumonia severity, symptom duration similar to 2 days, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient's own serotype were independently associated with a high NP pneumococcal density. NP pneumococcal density has limited value for detection of severe pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • Athlin, Simon, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between serotype-specific antibody response and serotype characteristics in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, with special reference to degree of encapsulation and invasive potential
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 1556-6811 .- 1556-679X. ; 21:11, s. 1541-1549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the immunoglobulin (Ig) response to causative serotype-specific capsular polysaccharides in adult pneumococcal pneumonia patients. The serotypes were grouped according to their degree of encapsulation and invasive potential. Seventy patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, 20 of whom were bacteremic, were prospectively studied. All pneumococcal isolates from the patients were serotyped, and the Ig titers to the homologous serotype were determined in acute- and convalescent-phase sera using a serotype-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Ig titers were lower in bacteremic cases than in nonbacteremic cases (P < 0.042). The Ig titer ratio (convalescent/acute titer) was ≥2 in 33 patients, 1 to 1.99 in 20 patients, and <1 in 17 patients. Patients ≥65 years old had a lower median Ig titer ratio than did younger patients (P < 0.031). The patients with serotypes with a thin capsule (1, 4, 7F, 9N, 9V, and 14) and medium/high invasive potential (1, 4, 7F, 9N, 9V, 14, and 18C) had higher Ig titer ratios than did patients with serotypes with a thick capsule (3, 6B, 11A, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F) and low invasive potential (3, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F) (P < 0.05 for both comparisons after adjustment for age). Ig titer ratios of <1 were predominantly noted in patients with serotypes with a thick capsule. In 8 patients with pneumococcal DNA detected in plasma, the three patients with the highest DNA load had the lowest Ig titer ratios. In conclusion, a high antibody response was associated with serotypes with a thin capsule and medium/high invasive potential, although a low antibody response was associated with serotypes with a thick capsule and a high pneumococcal plasma load.
  • Bengtsson, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Öbiogeografisk teori och bildning av naturreservat
  • 1982
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Naturreservat kan betraktas som ekologiska öar i en alltmer påverkad omgivning och därmed bedömas utifrån öbiogeografisk teori. Innebörden av denna teori, som beskriver bl a sambandet mellan ö-storlek och artantal med utgångspunkt från invandrings- resp. utdöendehastigheter presenteras i föreliggande rapport, liksom den debatt som uppstått kring teorin. Analyser demonstrerar ö-teorins giltighet för o lika organismgrupper (fiskar, skalbaggar, kärlväxter) i Sverige. De teoretiska konsekvenserna av förändringar av reservat ytor för antalet fågelarter diskuteras, samt den konflikt som råder mellan intressen företrädande dag ens produktionslandskap och ur ö-teoretisk synvinkel önskvärd reservatavsättning. Det aktuella antalet svenska reservat och deras yta, storleksfördelning, former och lokalisering är f n i ringa samstämmighet med ö-teorin. För att i framtiden ha kvar ett så varierat växt- och djurliv som möjligt måste de n totala reservat ytan öka. Man bör avsätta fler större reservat än små, och minska avstånden till andra reservat genom att skapa nya småreservat eller biotopkorridorer. Reservat bör ha så liten omkrets i förhållande till yta som möjligt och vidare, ej nödvändigtvis vara anpassade till aktuella ägogränser.
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