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Sökning: WFRF:(Heslegrave A. J.)

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1.
  • Chelban, V., et al. (författare)
  • PDXK mutations cause polyneuropathy responsive to pyridoxal 5′-phosphate supplementation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134. ; 86:2, s. 225-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To identify disease-causing variants in autosomal recessive axonal polyneuropathy with optic atrophy and provide targeted replacement therapy. Methods: We performed genome-wide sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and segregation analysis for novel disease-causing gene discovery. We used circular dichroism to show secondary structure changes and isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate the impact of variants on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding. Pathogenicity was further supported by enzymatic assays and mass spectroscopy on recombinant protein, patient-derived fibroblasts, plasma, and erythrocytes. Response to supplementation was measured with clinical validated rating scales, electrophysiology, and biochemical quantification. Results: We identified biallelic mutations in PDXK in 5 individuals from 2 unrelated families with primary axonal polyneuropathy and optic atrophy. The natural history of this disorder suggests that untreated, affected individuals become wheelchair-bound and blind. We identified conformational rearrangement in the mutant enzyme around the ATP-binding pocket. Low PDXK ATP binding resulted in decreased erythrocyte PDXK activity and low pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentrations. We rescued the clinical and biochemical profile with PLP supplementation in 1 family, improvement in power, pain, and fatigue contributing to patients regaining their ability to walk independently during the first year of PLP normalization. Interpretation: We show that mutations in PDXK cause autosomal recessive axonal peripheral polyneuropathy leading to disease via reduced PDXK enzymatic activity and low PLP. We show that the biochemical profile can be rescued with PLP supplementation associated with clinical improvement. As B6 is a cofactor in diverse essential biological pathways, our findings may have direct implications for neuropathies of unknown etiology characterized by reduced PLP levels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:225–240. © 2019 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.
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2.
  • Sudre, Carole H, et al. (författare)
  • White matter hyperintensities in progranulin-associated frontotemporal dementia: A longitudinal GENFI study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. Clinical. - 2213-1582. ; 24, s. 102077
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with both sporadic and genetic forms. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are a common cause of genetic FTD, causing either a behavioural presentation or, less commonly, language impairment. Presence on T2-weighted images of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) has been previously shown to be more commonly associated with GRN mutations rather than other forms of FTD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the longitudinal change in WMH and the associations of WMH burden with grey matter (GM) loss, markers of neurodegeneration and cognitive function in GRN mutation carriers. 336 participants in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) study were included in the analysis: 101 presymptomatic and 32 symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, as well as 203 mutation-negative controls. 39 presymptomatic and 12 symptomatic carriers, and 73 controls also had longitudinal data available. Participants underwent MR imaging acquisition including isotropic 1 mm T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. WMH were automatically segmented and locally subdivided to enable a more detailed representation of the pathology distribution. Log-transformed WMH volumes were investigated in terms of their global and regional associations with imaging measures (grey matter volumes), biomarker concentrations (plasma neurofilament light chain, NfL, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), genetic status (TMEM106B risk genotype) and cognition (tests of executive function). Analyses revealed that WMH load was higher in both symptomatic and presymptomatic groups compared with controls and this load increased over time. In particular, lesions were seen periventricularly in frontal and occipital lobes, progressing to medial layers over time. However, there was variability in the WMH load across GRN mutation carriers - in the symptomatic group 25.0% had none/mild load, 37.5% had medium and 37.5% had a severe load - a difference not fully explained by disease duration. GM atrophy was strongly associated with WMH load both globally and in separate lobes, and increased WMH burden in the frontal, periventricular and medial regions was associated with worse executive function. Furthermore, plasma NfL and to a lesser extent GFAP concentrations were seen to be associated with increased lesion burden. Lastly, the presence of the homozygous TMEM106B rs1990622 TT risk genotypic status was associated with an increased accrual of WMH per year. In summary, WMH occur in GRN mutation carriers and accumulate over time, but are variable in their severity. They are associated with increased GM atrophy and executive dysfunction. Furthermore, their presence is associated with markers of WM damage (NfL) and astrocytosis (GFAP), whilst their accrual is modified by TMEM106B genetic status. WMH load may represent a target marker for trials of disease modifying therapies in individual patients but the variability across the GRN population would prevent use of such markers as a global outcome measure across all participants in a trial.
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3.
  • Jabbari, E., et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis across the Spectrum of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - 2168-6149 .- 2168-6157. ; 77:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance Atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS), including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), may be difficult to distinguish in early stages and are often misdiagnosed as Parkinson disease (PD). The diagnostic criteria for PSP have been updated to encompass a range of clinical subtypes but have not been prospectively studied. Objective To define the distinguishing features of PSP and CBS subtypes and to assess their usefulness in facilitating early diagnosis and separation from PD. Design, Setting, Participants This cohort study recruited patients with APS and PD from movement disorder clinics across the United Kingdom from September 1, 2015, through December 1, 2018. Patients with APS were stratified into the following groups: those with Richardson syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP-subcortical (including PSP-parkinsonism and progressive gait freezing subtypes), PSP-cortical (including PSP-frontal and PSP-CBS overlap subtypes), MSA-parkinsonism, MSA-cerebellar, CBS–Alzheimer disease (CBS-AD), and CBS–non-AD. Data were analyzed from February 1, through May 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Baseline group comparisons used (1) clinical trajectory; (2) cognitive screening scales; (3) serum neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels; (4) TRIM11, ApoE, and MAPT genotypes; and (5) volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures. Results A total of 222 patients with APS (101 with PSP, 55 with MSA, 40 with CBS, and 26 indeterminate) were recruited (129 [58.1%] male; mean [SD] age at recruitment, 68.3 [8.7] years). Age-matched control participants (n = 76) and patients with PD (n = 1967) were included for comparison. Concordance between the antemortem clinical and pathologic diagnoses was achieved in 12 of 13 patients with PSP and CBS (92.3%) undergoing postmortem evaluation. Applying the Movement Disorder Society PSP diagnostic criteria almost doubled the number of patients diagnosed with PSP from 58 to 101. Forty-nine of 101 patients with reclassified PSP (48.5%) did not have the classic PSP-RS subtype. Patients in the PSP-subcortical group had a longer diagnostic latency and a more benign clinical trajectory than those in PSP-RS and PSP-cortical groups. The PSP-subcortical group was distinguished from PSP-cortical and PSP-RS groups by cortical volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures (area under the curve [AUC], 0.84-0.89), cognitive profile (AUC, 0.80-0.83), serum NF-L level (AUC, 0.75-0.83), and TRIM11 rs564309 genotype. Midbrain atrophy was a common feature of all PSP groups. Eight of 17 patients with CBS (47.1%) undergoing cerebrospinal fluid analysis were identified as having the CBS-AD subtype. Patients in the CBS-AD group had a longer diagnostic latency, relatively benign clinical trajectory, greater cognitive impairment, and higher APOE-ε4 allele frequency than those in the CBS–non-AD group (AUC, 0.80-0.87; P < .05). Serum NF-L levels distinguished PD from all PSP and CBS cases combined (AUC, 0.80; P < .05). Conclusions and Relevance These findings suggest that studies focusing on the PSP-RS subtype are likely to miss a large number of patients with underlying PSP tau pathology. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid defined a distinct CBS-AD subtype. The PSP and CBS subtypes have distinct characteristics that may enhance their early diagnosis.
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4.
  • Deming, Y., et al. (författare)
  • The MS4A gene cluster is a key modulator of soluble TREM2 and Alzheimer's disease risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - 1946-6234. ; 11:505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 plays a critical role in microglial activation, survival, and phagocytosis; however, the pathophysiological role of sTREM2 in AD is not well understood. Understanding the role of sTREM2 in AD may reveal new pathological mechanisms and lead to the identification of therapeutic targets. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic modifiers of CSF sTREM2 obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Common variants in the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene region were associated with CSF sTREM2 concentrations (rs1582763; P = 1.15 × 10-15); this was replicated in independent datasets. The variants associated with increased CSF sTREM2 concentrations were associated with reduced AD risk and delayed age at onset of disease. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1582763 modified expression of the MS4A4A and MS4A6A genes in multiple tissues, suggesting that one or both of these genes are important for modulating sTREM2 production. Using human macrophages as a proxy for microglia, we found that MS4A4A and TREM2 colocalized on lipid rafts at the plasma membrane, that sTREM2 increased with MS4A4A overexpression, and that silencing of MS4A4A reduced sTREM2 production. These genetic, molecular, and cellular findings suggest that MS4A4A modulates sTREM2. These findings also provide a mechanistic explanation for the original GWAS signal in the MS4A locus for AD risk and indicate that TREM2 may be involved in AD pathogenesis not only in TREM2 risk-variant carriers but also in those with sporadic disease.
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5.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • Do cerebrospinal fluid transfer methods affect measured amyloid β42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau in clinical practice?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - Elsevier Inc.. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 1:3, s. 380-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurodegenerative markers are measured clinically to support a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Several preanalytical factors may alter the CSF concentrations of amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) in particular with the potential to influence diagnosis. We aimed to determine whether routine handling of samples alters measured biomarker concentration compared with that of prompt delivery to the laboratory. Methods: Forty individuals with suspected neurodegenerative diseases underwent diagnostic lumbar punctures using a standardized technique. A sample of each patient's CSF was sent to the laboratory by four different delivery methods: (1) by courier at room temperature; (2) by courier, on ice; (3) using standard hospital portering; and (4) after quarantining for >24 hours. Aβ1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels measured using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques were compared between transfer methods. Results: There were no significant differences in Aβ1-42, t-tau, or p-tau concentrations measured in samples transported via the different delivery methods despite significant differences in time taken to deliver samples. Discussion: When CSF is collected in appropriate tubes, transferred at room temperature, and processed within 24 hours, neurodegenerative markers can be reliably determined. © 2015 The Authors.
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6.
  • Schiza, N., et al. (författare)
  • Gene replacement therapy in a model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4C neuropathy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain. - 0006-8950. ; 142, s. 1227-1241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C is the most common recessively inherited demyelinating neuropathy that results from loss of function mutations in the SH3TC2 gene. Sh3tc2(-/-) mice represent a well characterized disease model developing early onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with hypo- and demyelination, slowing of nerve conduction velocities and disturbed nodal architecture. The aim of this project was to develop a gene replacement therapy for treating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C to rescue the phenotype of the Sh3tc2(-/-) mouse model. We generated a lentiviral vector LV-Mpz.SH3TC2.myc to drive expression of the human SH3TC2 cDNA under the control of the Mpz promoter specifically in myelinating Schwann cells. The vector was delivered into 3-week-old Sh3tc2(-/-) mice by lumbar intrathecal injection and gene expression was assessed 4-8 weeks after injection. Immunofluorescence analysis showed presence of myc-tagged human SH3TC2 in sciatic nerves and lumbar roots in the perinuclear cytoplasm of a subset of Schwann cells, in a dotted pattern co-localizing with physiologically interacting protein Rab11. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed SH3TC2 mRNA expression in different peripheral nervous system tissues. A treatment trial was initiated in 3 weeks old randomized Sh3tc2(-/-) littermate mice which received either the full or mock (LV-Mpz.Egfp) vector. Behavioural analysis 8 weeks after injection showed improved motor performance in rotarod and foot grip tests in treated Sh3tc2(-/-) mice compared to mock vector-treated animals. Moreover, motor nerve conduction velocities were increased in treated Sh3tc2(-/-) mice. On a structural level, morphological analysis revealed significant improvement in g-ratios, myelin thickness, and ratios of demyelinated fibres in lumbar roots and sciatic nerves of treated Sh3tc2(-/-) mice. Finally, treated mice also showed improved nodal molecular architecture and reduction of blood neurofilament light levels, a clinically relevant biomarker for axonal injury/degeneration. This study provides a proof of principle for viral gene replacement therapy targeted to Schwann cells to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C and potentially other similar demyelinating inherited neuropathies.
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7.
  • Foiani, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Searching for novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of tau pathology in frontotemporal dementia : : An elusive quest
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050. ; 90:7, s. 740-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder associated usually with tau or TDP-43 pathology, although some phenotypes such as logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia are more commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology. Currently, there are no biomarkers able to diagnose the underlying pathology during life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of novel tau species within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as biomarkers for tau pathology in FTD. Methods 86 participants were included: 66 with a clinical diagnosis within the FTD spectrum and 20 healthy controls. Immunoassays targeting tau fragments N-123, N-mid-region, N-224 and X-368, as well as a non-phosphorylated form of tau were measured in CSF, along with total-tau (T-tau) and phospho-tau (P-tau (181)). Patients with FTD were grouped based on their Aβ 42 level into those likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (n=21) and those with likely frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) pathology (n=45). The FTLD group was then subgrouped based on their underlying clinical and genetic diagnoses into those with likely tau (n=7) or TDP-43 (n=18) pathology. Results Significantly higher concentrations of tau N-mid-region, tau N-224 and non-phosphorylated tau were seen in both the AD group and FTLD group compared with controls. However, none of the novel tau species showed a significant difference between the AD and FTLD groups, nor between the TDP-43 and tau pathology groups. In a subanalysis, normalising for total-tau, none of the novel tau species provided a higher sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between tau and TDP-43 pathology than P-tau (181) /T-tau, which itself only had a sensitivity of 61.1% and specificity of 85.7% with a cut-off of <0.109. Conclusions Despite investigating multiple novel CSF tau fragments, none show promise as an FTD biomarker and so the quest for in vivo markers of FTLD-tau pathology continues.
8.
  • Gray, E., et al. (författare)
  • A multi-center study of neurofilament assay reliability and inter-laboratory variability
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - 2167-8421.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Significantly elevated levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of different neurofilament assays in a round robin with 10 centers across Europe/U.S.Methods: Serum, plasma and CSF samples from a group of five ALS and five neurological control patients were distributed across 10 international specialist neurochemical laboratories for analysis by a range of commercial and in-house neurofilament assays. The performance of all assays was evaluated for their ability to differentiate between the groups. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was calculated where appropriate from sample measurements performed across multiple laboratories using the same assay.Results:All assays could differentiate ALS patients from controls in CSF. Inter-assay coefficient of variation of analytical platforms performed across multiple laboratories varied between 6.5% and 41.9%.Conclusions:This study is encouraging for the growing momentum toward integration of neurofilament measurement into the specialized ALS clinic. It demonstrates the importance of 'round robin' studies necessary to ensure the analytical quality required for translation to the routine clinical setting. A standardized neurofilament probe is needed which can be used as international benchmark for analytical performance in ALS.
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10.
  • Heller, Carolin, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein is raised in progranulin-associated frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. - 1468-330X. ; 91:3, s. 263-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are few validated fluid biomarkers in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a measure of astrogliosis, a known pathological process of FTD, but has yet to be explored as potential biomarker.Plasma GFAP and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentration were measured in 469 individuals enrolled in the Genetic FTD Initiative: 114 C9orf72 expansion carriers (74 presymptomatic, 40 symptomatic), 119 GRN mutation carriers (88 presymptomatic, 31 symptomatic), 53 MAPT mutation carriers (34 presymptomatic, 19 symptomatic) and 183 non-carrier controls. Biomarker measures were compared between groups using linear regression models adjusted for age and sex with family membership included as random effect. Participants underwent standardised clinical assessments including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration-Clinical Dementia Rating scale and MRI. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship of plasma GFAP to clinical and imaging measures.Plasma GFAP concentration was significantly increased in symptomatic GRN mutation carriers (adjusted mean difference from controls 192.3 pg/mL, 95% CI 126.5 to 445.6), but not in those with C9orf72 expansions (9.0, -61.3 to 54.6), MAPT mutations (12.7, -33.3 to 90.4) or the presymptomatic groups. GFAP concentration was significantly positively correlated with age in both controls and the majority of the disease groups, as well as with NfL concentration. In the presymptomatic period, higher GFAP concentrations were correlated with a lower cognitive score (MMSE) and lower brain volume, while in the symptomatic period, higher concentrations were associated with faster rates of atrophy in the temporal lobe.Raised GFAP concentrations appear to be unique to GRN-related FTD, with levels potentially increasing just prior to symptom onset, suggesting that GFAP may be an important marker of proximity to onset, and helpful for forthcoming therapeutic prevention trials.
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