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Sökning: WFRF:(Hessen Dag O.)

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  • Pilla, Rachel M., et al. (författare)
  • Global data set of long-term summertime vertical temperature profiles in 153 lakes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Springer Nature. - 2052-4463. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have led to long-term changes in the thermal structure, including surface temperatures, deepwater temperatures, and vertical thermal gradients, in many lakes around the world. Though many studies highlight warming of surface water temperatures in lakes worldwide, less is known about long-term trends in full vertical thermal structure and deepwater temperatures, which have been changing less consistently in both direction and magnitude. Here, we present a globally-expansive data set of summertime in-situ vertical temperature profiles from 153 lakes, with one time series beginning as early as 1894. We also compiled lake geographic, morphometric, and water quality variables that can influence vertical thermal structure through a variety of potential mechanisms in these lakes. These long-term time series of vertical temperature profiles and corresponding lake characteristics serve as valuable data to help understand changes and drivers of lake thermal structure in a time of rapid global and ecological change.
  • Adrian, Rita, et al. (författare)
  • Lakes as sentinels of climate change
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO). - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 54:6(2), s. 2283-2297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment.
  • Allesson, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • The role of photomineralization for CO2 emissions in boreal lakes along a gradient of dissolved organic matter
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : WILEY. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 66:1, s. 158-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many boreal lakes are experiencing an increase in concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM)-a process commonly labeled "browning." Browning affects microbial and photochemical mineralization of DOM, and causes increased light attenuation and hence reduced photosynthesis. Consequently, browning regulates lake heterotrophy and net CO2-efflux to the atmosphere. Climate and environmental change makes ecological forecasting and global carbon cycle modeling increasingly important. A proper understanding of the magnitude and relative contribution from CO2-generating processes for lakes ranging in dissolve organic carbon (DOC) concentrations is therefore crucial for constraining models and forecasts. Here, we aim to study the relative contribution of photomineralization to total CO(2)production in 70 Scandinavian lakes along an ecosystem gradient of DOC concentration. We combined spectral data from the lakes with regression estimates between optical parameters and wavelength specific photochemical reactivity to estimate rates of photochemical DOC mineralization. Further, we estimated total in-lake CO2-production and efflux from lake chemical and physical data. Photochemical mineralization corresponded on average to 9% +/- 1% of the total CO2-evasion, with the highest contribution in clear lakes. The calculated relative contribution of photochemical mineralization to total in-lake CO2-production was about 3% +/- 0.2% in all lakes. Although lakes differed substantially in color, depth-integrated photomineralization estimates were similar in all lakes, regardless of DOC concentrations. DOC concentrations were positively related to CO2-efflux and total in-lake CO2-production but negatively related to primary production. We conclude that enhanced rates of photochemical mineralization will be a minor contributor to increased heterotrophy under increased browning.
  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • A single pulse of diffuse contaminants alters the size distribution of natural phytoplankton communities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 683, s. 578-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The presence of a multitude of bioactive organic pollutants collectively classified as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwaters is of concern, considering that ecological assessments of their potential impacts on natural systems are still scarce. In this field experiment we tested whether a single pulse exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are commonly found in European inland waters, can influence the size distributions of natural lake phytoplankton communities. Size is one of the most influential determinants of community structure and functioning, particularly in planktonic communities and food webs. Using an in-situ microcosm approach, phytoplankton communities in two lakes with different nutrient levels (mesotrophic and eutrophic) were exposed to a concentration gradient of the PPCPs mixture at five levels. We tested whether sub-lethal PPCPs doses affect the scaling of organisms' abundances with their size, and the slope of these size spectra, which describe changes in the abundances of small relative to large phytoplankton. Our results showed that a large proportion (approximately 80%) of the dataset followed a power-law distribution, thus suggesting evidence of scale invariance of abundances, as expected in steady state ecosystems. PPCPs were however found to induce significant changes in the size spectra and community structure of natural phytoplankton assemblages. The two highest treatment levels of PPCPs were associated with decreased abundance of the most dominant size class (nano-phytoplankton: 2-5 mu m), leading to a flattening of the size spectra slope. These results suggest that a pulse exposure to PPCPs induce changes that potentially lead to unsteady ecosystem states and cascading effects in the aquatic food webs, by favoring larger non-edible algae at the expense of small edible species. We propose higher susceptibility due to higher surface to volume ratio in small species as the likely cause of these structural changes.
  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • Ecological Memory of Historical Contamination Influences the Response of Phytoplankton Communities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 24:7, s. 1591-1607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological memory (EM) recognizes the importance of previous stress encounters in promoting community tolerance and thereby enhances ecosystem stability, provided that gained tolerances are preserved during non-stress periods. Drawing from this concept, we hypothesized that the recruitment of tolerant species can be facilitated by imposing an initial sorting process (conditioning) during the early stages of community assembly, which should result in higher production (biomass development and photosynthetic efficiency) and stable community composition. To test this, phytoplankton resting stages were germinated from lake sediments originating from two catchments that differed in contamination history: one impacted by long-term herbicides and pesticides exposures (historically contaminated lake) from an agricultural catchment compared to a low-impacted one (near-pristine lake) from a forested catchment. Conditioning was achieved by adding an herbicide (Isoproturon, which was commonly used in the catchment of the historically contaminated lake) during germination. Afterward, the communities obtained from germination were exposed to an increasing gradient of Isoproturon. As hypothesized, upon conditioning, the phytoplankton assemblages from the historically contaminated lake were able to rapidly restore photosynthetic efficiency (p > 0.01) and became structurally (community composition) more resistant to Isoproturon. The communities of the near-pristine lake did not yield these positive effects regardless of conditioning, supporting that EM was a unique attribute of the historically stressed ecosystem. Moreover, assemblages that displayed higher structural resistance concurrently yielded lower biomass, indicating that benefits of EM in increasing structural stability may trade-off with production. Our results clearly indicate that EM can foster ecosystem stability to a recurring stressor.
  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • Resilience of Natural Phytoplankton Communities to Pulse Disturbances from Micropollutant Exposure and Vertical Mixing
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268 .- 1552-8618. ; 38:10, s. 2197-2208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Freshwaters are increasingly exposed to complex mixtures of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from municipal wastewater, which are known to alter freshwater communities' structure and functioning. However, their interaction with other disturbances and whether their combined effects can impact ecological resilience (i.e., the ability of a system to tolerate disturbances without altering the system's original structure and processes) remain unexplored. Using in situ mesocosms in 2 lakes with different nutrient levels (mesotrophic and eutrophic), we assessed whether a pulse exposure to sublethal concentrations of 12 PPCPs affects the ecological resilience of natural phytoplankton communities that experienced an abrupt environmental change involving the destabilization of the water column through mixing. Such mixing events are predicted to increase as the effects of climate change unfold, leading to more frequent storms, which disrupt stratification in lakes and force communities to restructure. We assessed their combined effects on community metrics (biomass, species richness, and composition) and their relative resilience using 4 indicators (cross-scale, within-scale, aggregation length, and gap length), inferred from phytoplankton communities by discontinuity analysis. The mixing disturbance alone had negligible effects on the community metrics, but when combined with chemical contaminants significant changes were measured: reducing total biomass, species richness, and altered community composition of phytoplankton. Once these changes occurred, they persisted until the end of the experiment (day 20), when the communities' structures from the 2 highest exposure levels diverged from the controls. The resilience indicators were not affected by PPCPs but differed significantly between lakes, with lower resilience found in the eutrophic lake. Thus, PPCPs can significantly alter community structures and reinforce mechanisms that maintain ecosystems in a degraded state.
  • Bryhn, Andreas Christoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting particulate pools of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon in lakes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences. - 1015-1621 .- 1420-9055. ; 69:4, s. 484-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The variation between lakes with respect to concentrations of particulate nutrient pools was studied in 126 Norwegian lakes covering a wide range in lake-specific properties. Particulate phosphorus (P) always constituted close to 60% of total P (TP) concentrations. Particulate nitrogen (N) and organic carbon (C) concentrations, on the other hand, were sensitive to several lake characteristics, particularly to TP concentrations. Through optimisation procedures and multivariate regression, the present study presents general empirical models for predicting particulate nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, significant trend shifts in the relationships between TP vs. particulate N and TP vs. particulate organic C were observed at TP = 6 mu g l(-1) and TP = 80 mu g l(-1), suggesting non-linearities in these relationships along the TP gradient. A trend shift in the TP vs. chlorophyll relationship was observed at TP = 90. Taking such non-linearities into account may decrease the uncertainty in predicting particulate N, particulate organic C and chlorophyll.
  • Creed, Irena F., et al. (författare)
  • Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition : Implications for food webs of northern lakes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 24:8, s. 3692-3714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans.
  • de Wit, Heleen A., et al. (författare)
  • Current Browning of Surface Waters Will Be Further Promoted by Wetter Climate
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS. - : American Chemical Society. - 2328-8930. ; 3:12, s. 430-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Browning of surface waters because of increasing terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (OC) concentrations is a concern for drinking water providers and can impact land carbon storage. We show that positive trends in OC in 474 streams, lakes, and rivers in boreal and subarctic ecosystems in Norway, Sweden, and Finland between 1990 and 2013 are surprisingly constant across climatic gradients and catchment sizes (median, +1.4% year(-1); interquartile range, +0.8-2.0% year(-1)), implying that water bodies across the entire landscape are browning. The largest trends (median, +1.7% year(-1)) were found in regions impacted by strong reductions in sulfur deposition, while subarctic regions showed the least browning (median, +0.8% year(-1)). In dry regions, precipitation was a strong and positive driver of OC concentrations, declining in strength moving toward high rainfall sites. We estimate that a 10% increase in precipitation will increase mobilization of OC from soils to freshwaters by at least 30%, demonstrating the importance of climate wetting for the carbon cycle. We conclude that upon future increases in precipitation, current browning trends will continue across the entire aquatic continuum, requiring expensive adaptations in drinking water plants, increasing land to sea export of carbon, and impacting aquatic productivity and greenhouse gas emissions.
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