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Sökning: WFRF:(Heywood W. E.)

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  • Veres, P., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of inverse Compton emission from a long gamma-ray burst
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 575:7783, s. 459-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from ultra-relativistic jets launched from the collapsing cores of dying massive stars. They are characterized by an initial phase of bright and highly variable radiation in the kiloelectron volt-to-mega electronvoltband, which is probably produced within the jet and lasts from milliseconds to minutes, known as the prompt emission(1,2). Subsequently, the interaction of the jet with the surrounding medium generates shock waves that are responsible for the afterglow emission, which lasts from days to months and occurs over a broad energy range from the radio to the gigaelectronvolt bands(1-6). The afterglow emission is generally well explained as synchrotron radiation emitted by electrons accelerated by the external shock(7-9). Recently, intense long-lasting emission between 0.2 and 1 teraelectronvolts was observed from GRB 190114C(10,11). Here we report multifrequency observations of GRB 190114C, and study the evolution in time of the GRB emission across 17 orders of magnitude in energy, from 5 x 10(-6) to 10(12) electronvolts. We find that the broadband spectral energy distribution is double-peaked, with the teraelectronvolt emission constituting a distinct spectral component with power comparable to the synchrotron component. This component is associated with the afterglow and is satisfactorily explained by inverse Compton up-scattering of synchrotron photons by high-energy electrons. We find that the conditions required to account for the observed teraelectronvolt component are typical for GRBs, supporting the possibility that inverse Compton emission is commonly produced in GRBs.</p>
  • Heywood, W. E., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of novel CSF biomarkers for neurodegeneration and their validation by a high-throughput multiplexed targeted proteomic assay
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurodegeneration. - 1750-1326. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Currently there are no effective treatments for many neurodegenerative diseases. Reliable biomarkers for identifying and stratifying these diseases will be important in the development of future novel therapies. Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) is considered an under diagnosed form of dementia for which markers are needed to discriminate LBD from other forms of dementia such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This work describes a Label-Free proteomic profiling analysis of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from non-neurodegenerative controls and patients with LBD. Using this technology we identified several potential novel markers for LBD. These were then combined with other biomarkers from previously published studies, to create a 10 min multiplexed targeted and translational MRM-LC-MS/MS assay. This test was used to validate our new assay in a larger cohort of samples including controls and the other neurodegenerative conditions of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (PD). Results: Thirty eight proteins showed significantly (p < 0.05) altered expression in LBD CSF by proteomic profiling. The targeted MRM-LC-MS/MS assay revealed 4 proteins that were specific for the identification of AD from LBD: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (p < 0.0001), lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (p < 0.0001), pro-orexin (p < 0.0017) and transthyretin (p < 0.0001). Nineteen proteins were elevated significantly in both AD and LBD versus the control group of which 4 proteins are novel (malate dehydrogenase 1, serum amyloid A4, GM2-activator protein, and prosaposin). Protein-DJ1 was only elevated significantly in the PD group and not in either LBD or AD samples. Correlations with Alzheimer-associated amyloid beta-42 levels, determined by ELISA, were observed for transthyretin, GM2 activator protein and IGF2 in the AD disease group (r(2) >= 0.39, p <= 0.012). Cystatin C, ubiquitin and osteopontin showed a strong significant linear relationship (r(2) >= 0.4, p <= 0.03) with phosphorylated-tau levels in all groups, whilst malate dehydrogenase and apolipoprotein E demonstrated a linear relationship with phosphorylated-tau and total-tau levels in only AD and LBD disease groups. Conclusions: Using proteomics we have identified several potential and novel markers of neurodegeneration and subsequently validated them using a rapid, multiplexed mass spectral test. This targeted proteomic platform can measure common markers of neurodegeneration that correlate with existing diagnostic makers as well as some that have potential to show changes between AD from LBD.
  • Heywood, I., et al. (författare)
  • Inflation of 430-parsec bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Centre by an energetic event
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 573:7773, s. 235-237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Galactic Centre contains a supermassive black hole with a mass of four million Suns1 within an environment that differs markedly from that of the Galactic disk. Although the black hole is essentially quiescent in the broader context of active galactic nuclei, X-ray observations have provided evidence for energetic outbursts from its surroundings2. Also, although the levels of star formation in the Galactic Centre have been approximately constant over the past few hundred million years, there is evidence of increased short-duration bursts3, strongly influenced by the interaction of the black hole with the enhanced gas density present within the ring-like central molecular zone4 at Galactic longitude |l| &lt; 0.7 degrees and latitude |b| &lt; 0.2 degrees. The inner 200-parsec region is characterized by large amounts of warm molecular gas5, a high cosmic-ray ionization rate6, unusual gas chemistry, enhanced synchrotron emission7,8, and a multitude of radio-emitting magnetized filaments9, the origin of which has not been established. Here we report radio imaging that reveals a bipolar bubble structure, with an overall span of 1 degree by 3 degrees (140 parsecs × 430 parsecs), extending above and below the Galactic plane and apparently associated with the Galactic Centre. The structure is edge-brightened and bounded, with symmetry implying creation by an energetic event in the Galactic Centre. We estimate the age of the bubbles to be a few million years, with a total energy of 7 × 1052 ergs. We postulate that the progenitor event was a major contributor to the increased cosmic-ray density in the Galactic Centre, and is in turn the principal source of the relativistic particles required to power the synchrotron emission of the radio filaments within and in the vicinity of the bubble cavities.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
  • Heslegrave, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • A Selected reaction monitoring protocol for the measurement of sTREM2 in cerebrospinal fluid
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biomarkers for Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease. Perneczky R. (red.). - Springer. - 0893-2336. - 978-1-4939-7674-4 ; s. 169-177
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in the biomarker field with the advent of targeted proteomics. Tryptic peptides from a protein of interest can be used to create a targeted assay to interrogate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biomarkers. Since heterozygous mutations in the TREM2 gene have been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, measuring this soluble protein in CSF has become a priority. This chapter demonstrates the development, optimization, and validation of a method to measure soluble TREM2 using a single reaction monitoring (SRM) targeted mass spectrometry assay. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
  • Murray, C. E., et al. (författare)
  • The presubiculum is preserved from neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica Communications. - 2051-5960. ; 6:62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the majority of affected brain regions the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are beta-amyloid (A beta) deposits in the form of diffuse and neuritic plaques, tau pathology in the form of neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads and plaque-associated abnormal neurites in combination with an inflammatory response. However, the anatomical area of the presubiculum, is characterised by the presence of a single large evenly distributed 'lake-like' A beta deposit with minimal tau deposition or accumulation of inflammatory markers. Post-mortem brain samples from sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD) and two hereditary cerebral amyloid diseases, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD) were used to compare the morphology of the extracellular proteins deposited in the presubiculum compared to the entorhinal cortex. The level of tau pathology and the extent of microglial activation were quantitated in the two brain regions in SAD and FAD. Frozen tissue was used to investigate the A beta species and proteomic differences between the two regions. Consistent with our previous investigations of FBD and FDD cases we were able to establish that the 'lake-like' pre-amyloid deposits of the presubiculum were not a unique feature of AD but they also found two non-A beta amyloidosis. Comparing the presubiculum to the entorhinal cortex the number of neurofibrillary tangles and tau load were significantly reduced; there was a reduction in microglial activation; there were differences in the A beta profiles and the investigation of the whole proteome showed significant changes in different protein pathways. In summary, understanding why the presubiculum has a different morphological appearance, biochemical and proteomic makeup compared to surrounding brain regions severely affected by neurodegeneration could lead us to understanding protective mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases.
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