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1.
  • Luna, G., et al. (författare)
  • Infection Risks among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Fingolimod, Natalizumab, Rituximab, and Injectable Therapies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6149 .- 2168-6157. ; 77:2, s. 184-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Although highly effective disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) have been associated with an increased risk of infections vs injectable therapies interferon beta and glatiramer acetate (GA), the magnitude of potential risk increase is not well established in real-world populations. Even less is known about infection risk associated with rituximab, which is extensively used off-label to treat MS in Sweden. Objective: To examine the risk of serious infections associated with disease-modifying treatments for MS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted in Sweden from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. National registers with prospective data collection from the public health care system were used. All Swedish patients with relapsing-remitting MS whose data were recorded in the Swedish MS register as initiating treatment with rituximab, natalizumab, fingolimod, or interferon beta and GA and an age-matched and sex-matched general population comparator cohort were included. Exposures: Treatment with rituximab, natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta and GA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serious infections were defined as all infections resulting in hospitalization. Additional outcomes included outpatient treatment with antibiotic or herpes antiviral medications. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated in Cox regressions. Results: A total of 6421 patients (3260 taking rituximab, 1588 taking natalizumab, 1535 taking fingolimod, and 2217 taking interferon beta/GA) were included, plus a comparator cohort of 42645 individuals. Among 6421 patients with 8600 treatment episodes, the mean (SD) age at treatment start ranged from 35.0 (10.1) years to 40.4 (10.6) years; 6186 patients were female. The crude rate of infections was higher in patients with MS taking interferon beta and GA than the general population (incidence rate, 8.9 [95% CI, 6.4-12.1] vs 5.2 [95% CI, 4.8-5.5] per 1000 person-years), and higher still in patients taking fingolimod (incidence rate, 14.3 [95% CI, 10.8-18.5] per 1000 person-years), natalizumab (incidence rate, 11.4 [95% CI, 8.3-15.3] per 1000 person-years), and rituximab (incidence rate, 19.7 [95% CI, 16.4-23.5] per 1000 person-years). After confounder adjustment, the rate remained significantly higher for rituximab (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.11-2.61]) but not fingolimod (HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.84-2.03]) or natalizumab (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.71-1.77]) compared with interferon beta and GA. In contrast, use of herpes antiviral drugs during rituximab treatment was similar to that of interferon beta and GA and lower than that of natalizumab (HR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]) and fingolimod (HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.27-2.32]). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with MS are at a generally increased risk of infections, and this differs by treatment. The rate of infections was lowest with interferon beta and GA; among newer treatments, off-label use of rituximab was associated with the highest rate of serious infections. The different risk profiles should inform the risk-benefit assessments of these treatments. © 2019 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk for Fingolimod, Natalizumab, and Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : Wiley. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 87:5, s. 688-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association. Objective: Novel, highly effective disease-modifying therapies have revolutionized multiple sclerosis (MS) care. However, evidence from large comparative studies on important safety outcomes, such as cancer, is still lacking. Methods: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we linked data from the Swedish MS register to the Swedish Cancer Register and other national health care and census registers. We included 4,187 first-ever initiations of rituximab, 1,620 of fingolimod, and 1,670 of natalizumab in 6,136 MS patients matched for age, sex, and location to 37,801 non-MS general population subjects. Primary outcome was time to first invasive cancer. Results: We identified 78 invasive cancers among treated patients: rituximab 33 (incidence rate [IR] per 10,000 person-years = 34.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–48.3), fingolimod 28 (IR = 44.0, 95% CI = 29.2–63.5), and natalizumab 17 (IR = 26.0, 95% CI = 15.1–41.6). The general population IR was 31.0 (95% CI = 27.8–34.4). Adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no difference in risk of invasive cancer between rituximab, natalizumab, and the general population but a possibly higher risk with fingolimod compared to the general population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.98–2.38) and rituximab (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00–2.84). Interpretation: In this first large comparative study of 3 highly effective MS disease-modifying therapies, no increased risk of invasive cancer was seen with rituximab and natalizumab, compared to the general population. However, there was a borderline-significant increased risk with fingolimod, compared to both the general population and rituximab. It was not possible to attribute this increased risk to any specific type of cancer, and further studies are warranted to validate these findings. ANN NEUROL 2020.
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3.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk for Fingolimod, Natalizumab, and Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 87:5, s. 688-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Novel, highly effective disease-modifying therapies have revolutionized multiple sclerosis (MS) care. However, evidence from large comparative studies on important safety outcomes, such as cancer, is still lacking.Methods: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we linked data from the Swedish MS register to the Swedish Cancer Register and other national health care and census registers. We included 4,187 first-ever initiations of rituximab, 1,620 of fingolimod, and 1,670 of natalizumab in 6,136 MS patients matched for age, sex, and location to 37,801 non-MS general population subjects. Primary outcome was time to first invasive cancer.Results: We identified 78 invasive cancers among treated patients: rituximab 33 (incidence rate [IR] per 10,000 person-years = 34.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-48.3), fingolimod 28 (IR = 44.0, 95% CI = 29.2-63.5), and natalizumab 17 (IR = 26.0, 95% CI = 15.1-41.6). The general population IR was 31.0 (95% CI = 27.8-34.4). Adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no difference in risk of invasive cancer between rituximab, natalizumab, and the general population but a possibly higher risk with fingolimod compared to the general population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.98-2.38) and rituximab (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00-2.84).Interpretation: In this first large comparative study of 3 highly effective MS disease-modifying therapies, no increased risk of invasive cancer was seen with rituximab and natalizumab, compared to the general population. However, there was a borderline-significant increased risk with fingolimod, compared to both the general population and rituximab. It was not possible to attribute this increased risk to any specific type of cancer, and further studies are warranted to validate these findings.
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4.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register : Further Improving a Resource for Pharmacoepidemiologic Evaluations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1044-3983 .- 1531-5487. ; 30:2, s. 230-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register is a national register monitoring treatment and clinical course for all Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, with high coverage and close integration with the clinic. Despite its great value for epidemiologic research, it has not previously been validated. In this brief report, we summarize a large validation of >3,000 patients in the register using clinical chart review in the context of the COMBAT-MS study. While further improving the data quality for a central cohort of patients available for future epidemiologic research, this study also allowed us to estimate the accuracy and completeness of the register data.
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5.
  • Beecham, Ashley H, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 75 VARICK ST, 9TH FLR, NEW YORK, NY 10013-1917 USA. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1353-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.
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6.
  • He, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Timing of high-efficacy therapy for multiple sclerosis: a retrospective observational cohort study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465. ; 19:4, s. 307-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-efficacy therapies in multiple sclerosis are traditionally used after unsuccessful treatment with first-line disease modifying therapies. We hypothesised that early commencement of high-efficacy therapy would be associated with reduced long-term disability. We therefore aimed to compare long-term disability outcomes between patients who started high-efficacy therapies within 2 years of disease onset with those who started 4-6 years after disease onset.In this retrospective international observational study, we obtained data from the MSBase registry and the Swedish MS registry, which prospectively collect patient data that are specific to multiple sclerosis as part of routine clinical care. We identified adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, with at least 6 years of follow-up since disease onset, and who started the high-efficacy therapy (rituximab, ocrelizumab, mitoxantrone, alemtuzumab, or natalizumab) either 0-2 years (early) or 4-6 years (late) after clinical disease onset. We matched patients in the early and late groups using propensity scores calculated on the basis of their baseline clinical and demographic data. The primary outcome was disability, measured with the Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS; an ordinal scale of 0-10, with higher scores indicating increased disability), at 6-10 years after disease onset, assessed with a linear mixed-effects model.We identified 6149 patients in the MSBase registry who had been given high-efficacy therapy, with data collected between Jan 1, 1975, and April 13, 2017, and 2626 patients in the Swedish MS Registry, with data collected between Dec 10, 1997, and Sept 16, 2019. Of whom, 308 in the MSBase registry and 236 in the Swedish MS registry were eligible for inclusion. 277 (51%) of 544 patients commenced therapy early and 267 (49%) commenced therapy late. For the primary analysis, we matched 213 patients in the early treatment group with 253 in the late treatment group. At baseline, the mean EDSS score was 2·2 (SD 1·2) in the early group and 2·1 (SD 1·2) in the late group. Median follow-up time for matched patients was 7·8 years (IQR 6·7-8·9). In the sixth year after disease onset, the mean EDSS score was 2·2 (SD 1·6) in the early group compared with 2·9 (SD 1·8) in the late group (p<0·0001). This difference persisted throughout each year of follow-up until the tenth year after disease onset (mean EDSS score 2·3 [SD 1·8] vs 3·5 [SD 2·1]; p<0·0001), with a difference between groups of -0·98 (95% CI -1·51 to -0·45; p<0·0001, adjusted for proportion of time on any disease-modifying therapy) across the 6-10 year follow-up period.High-efficacy therapy commenced within 2 years of disease onset is associated with less disability after 6-10 years than when commenced later in the disease course. This finding can inform decisions regarding optimal sequence and timing of multiple sclerosis therapy.National Health and Medical Research Council Australia and MS Society UK.
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7.
  • Helgadottir, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The same sequence variant on 9p21 associates with myocardial infarction, abdominal aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:2, s. 217-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, two common sequence variants on 9p21, tagged by rs10757278-G and rs10811661-T, were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)(1-4) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)(5-7), respectively. We proceeded to further investigate the contributions of these variants to arterial diseases and T2D. Here we report that rs10757278-G is associated with, in addition to CAD, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; odds ratio (OR) 1.31, P = 1.2 x 10(-12)) and intracranial aneurysm (OR = 1.29, P = 2.5 x 10(-6)), but not with T2D. This variant is the first to be described that affects the risk of AAA and intracranial aneurysm in many populations. The association of rs10811661-T to T2D replicates in our samples, but the variant does not associate with any of the five arterial diseases examined. These findings extend our insight into the role of the sequence variant tagged by rs10757278-G and show that it is not confined to atherosclerotic diseases.
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8.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for multiple sclerosis in relatives and spouses of patients diagnosed with autoimmune and related conditions
  • Ingår i: Neurogenetics. - : Springer. - 1364-6745 .- 1364-6753. ; 10:1, s. 5-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the era of complex disease genetics, the consideration of familial risks is important in the assessment of the likely success of these studies. In the present article, we study familial risks for multiple sclerosis (MS) among parents and offspring, singleton siblings, twins, and spouses when a family member was diagnosed with MS or any of 33 other autoimmune diseases. The availability of a Multigeneration Register in Sweden provides a reliable access to families throughout the last century. The diseases in individual family members were obtained through linkage to the Hospital Discharge Register. With a total patient population of 425,102 of whom 11,154 were diagnosed with MS, this is the largest population-based family study on these diseases to date. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for family member of MS patients compared to those lacking an affected family member. SIR for MS was 5.94 (6.12 when parents were aged <73 years) in offspring of affected parents, 6.25 in singleton siblings, 9.09 in twins, and 1.50 (nonsignificant) in spouses; the SIRs did not depend on the gender. The SIRs for MS were 1.84 when a parent was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 1.14 with parental asthma. The overall risk of MS was 1.21 when a parent was diagnosed with any autoimmune disease. The genes, so far associated with MS, explain little of the familial aggregation of MS, calling for further efforts in gene identification. The shared familial risks of MS with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and asthma suggest shared genetic basis.
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9.
  • Holmen, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish national post-marketing surveillance study of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - : SAGE Publications. - 1477-0970 .- 1352-4585. ; 17:6, s. 708-719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A post marketing surveillance study was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of natalizumab in Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients since its introduction in August 2006 until March 2010. Methods: Patients were registered in the web-based Swedish MS-registry at 40 locations and evaluated every 6 months. Adverse events and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: One thousand one hundred and fifty-two patients were included (71.4% female) and 149 patients stopped treatment; the main reason was planned pregnancy. Anti-natalizumab antibodies were found in 4.5% (52 patients) of which 1.6% displayed persistent antibodies. Serious adverse events were rare, but included three cases with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There were seven fatal cases, probably unrelated to the natalizumab treatment. For relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 901), mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, -10.7%), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS, -20.4%), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29, physical -9.9%, psychological -13.3%) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, +10.7%) all showed significant improvements during 24 months of treatment with natalizumab. The Swedish web-based MS quality registry proved to function as a platform for post-marketing MS drug surveillance, providing long-term data regarding drug effects and adverse events beyond clinical trials. Conclusions: Our results indicate that natalizumab is generally well tolerated and has sustained efficacy for patients with active MS, though the risk of PML is still an important concern.
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10.
  • Killestein, Joep, et al. (författare)
  • Antibody-Mediated suppression of Vbeta5.2/5.3+ T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis : Results from an MRI-Monitored Phase II Clinical Trial
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 51:4, s. 467-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the humanized antibody ATM-027 in a baseline versus treatment magnetic resonance imaging-monitored study. Expansion of Vß5.2/5.3+ T cells has been demonstrated in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain lesions of MS patients. In a phase I study, ATM-027 depleted these cells in peripheral blood and, in parallel, T-cell MBP reactivity and IFN-? expression were reduced. We studied 59 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (47 on ATM-027 and 12 on placebo) stratified for HLA-DR2 status. Monthly intravenous injections were given for 6 months. Individual dose titration was employed to obtain depletion of the target T-cell level and downregulation of antigen receptor density as monitored by flow cytometry. Five monthly magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed before treatment to establish baseline activity, six during treatment, and three during follow-up. Additional immunological assessments were performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of ATM-027. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, inducing consistent suppression of the target cell population. During run-in, active lesions were found in 78.7% (37/47) of patients treated with ATM-027. During treatment, the median number of lesions was reduced by 33% (p = 0.13) independent of DR2 status. The corresponding volume of enhancement was 221 mm3 at baseline, with a reduction of 10% during treatment. Decreased numbers of cells expressing interferon-? messenger RNA, and decreased T-cell reactivity to several myelin antigens were found in ATM-027 treated patients. In conclusion, consistent suppression of Vß 5.2/5.3+ T cells was achieved. However, the effect size on magnetic resonance imaging was considerably less than the targeted 60%.
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