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Sökning: WFRF:(Hjorth Martin)

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1.
  • Christiansson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Imatinib and Dasatinib Reduce Myeloid Suppressor Cells and Release Effector Lymphocyte Responses
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-8514 .- 1535-7163. ; 14:5, s. 1181-1191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immune escape mechanisms promote tumor progression and are hurdles of cancer immunotherapy. Removing immunosuppressive cells before treatment can enhance efficacy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) may be of interest to combine with immunotherapy, as it has been shown that the inhibitor sunitinib reduces myeloid suppressor cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma and dasatinib promotes expansion of natural killer-like lymphocytes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, the capacity of dasatinib and imatinib to reduce myeloid suppressor cells and to induce immunomodulation in vivo was investigated ex vivo. Samples from CML patients treated with imatinib (n = 18) or dasatinib (n = 14) within a Nordic clinical trial (clinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00852566) were investigated for the presence of CD11b(+)CD14(-)CD33(+) myeloid cells and inhibitorymolecules (arginase I, myeloperoxidase, IL10) as well as the presence of natural killer cells, T cells (naive/memory), and stimulatory cytokines (IL12, IFN gamma, MIG, IP10). Both imatinib and dasatinib decreased the presence of CD11b(+)CD14(-)CD33(+) myeloid cells as well as the inhibitory molecules and the remaining myeloid suppressor cells had an increased CD40 expression. Monocytes also increased CD40 after therapy. Moreover, increased levels of CD40, IL12, natural killer cells, and experienced T cells were noted after TKI initiation. The presence of experienced T cells was correlated to a higher IFNg and MIG plasma concentration. Taken together, the results demonstrate that both imatinib and dasatinib tilted the immunosuppressive CML tumor milieu towards promoting immune stimulation. Hence, imatinib and dasatinib may be of interest to combine with cancer immunotherapy.
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2.
  • Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Dasatinib induces fast and deep responses in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase: clinical results from a randomised phase-2 study (NordCML006)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0609 .- 0902-4441. ; 94:3, s. 243-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100mg QD or imatinib 400mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR3.0 was reached at 3months in 36% vs. 8% (P=0.02), at 12months in 81% vs. 46% (P=0.02) and at 18months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR4.5 was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P<0.05) at 36months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation.
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  • Carlsson, Lena M S, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term incidence of microvascular disease after bariatric surgery or usual care in patients with obesity, stratified by baseline glycaemic status: a post-hoc analysis of participants from the Swedish Obese Subjects study.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. - 2213-8595. ; 5:4, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bariatric surgery is associated with remission of diabetes and prevention of diabetic complications in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term effects of bariatric surgery on microvascular complications in patients with prediabetes are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bariatric surgery on incidence of microvascular complications in patients with obesity stratified by baseline glycaemic status.Patients were recruited to the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study between Sept 1, 1987, and Jan 31, 2001. Inclusion criteria were age 37-60 years and BMI of 34 kg/m(2) or greater in men and 38 kg/m(2) or greater in women. Exclusion criteria were identical in surgery and control groups and designed to exclude patients not suitable for surgery. The surgery group (n=2010) underwent gastric bypass (265 [13%]), gastric banding (376 [19%]), or vertical-banded gastroplasty (1369 [68%]). Participants in the control group (n=2037) received usual care. Bodyweight was measured and questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 0·5 years, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years, 6 years, 8 years, 10 years, 15 years, and 20 years. Biochemical variables were measured at baseline and at 2 years, 10 years, and 15 years. We categorised participants into subgroups on the basis of baseline glycaemic status (normal [fasting blood glucose concentration <5·0 mmol/L], prediabetes [5·0-6·0 mmol/L], screen-detected diabetes [≥6·1 mmol/L at baseline visit without previous diagnosis], and established diabetes [diagnosis of diabetes before study inclusion]). We obtained data about first incidence of microvascular disease from nationwide registers and about diabetes incidence at study visits at 2 years, 10 years, and 15 years. We did the main analysis by intention to treat, and subgroup analyses after stratification by baseline glycaemic status and by diabetes status at the 15 year follow-up. The SOS study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01479452.4032 of the 4047 participants in the SOS study were included in this analysis. We excluded four patients with suspected type 1 diabetes, and 11 patients with unknown glycaemic status at baseline. At baseline, 2838 patients had normal blood glucose, 591 had prediabetes, 246 had screen-detected diabetes, and 357 had established diabetes. Median follow-up was 19 years (IQR 16-21). We identified 374 incident cases of microvascular disease in the control group and 224 in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·56, 95% CI 0·48-0·66; p<0·0001). Interaction between baseline glycaemic status and effect of treatment on incidence of microvascular disease was significant (p=0·0003). Unadjusted HRs were lowest in the subgroup with prediabetes (0·18, 95% CI 0·11-0·30), followed by subgroups with screen-detected diabetes (0·39, 0·24-0·65), established diabetes (0·54, 0·40-0·72), and normoglycaemia (0·63, 0·48-0·81). Surgery was associated with reduced incidence of microvascular events in people with prediabetes regardless of whether they developed diabetes during follow-up.Bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of microvascular complications in all subgroups, but the greatest relative risk reduction was observed in patients with prediabetes at baseline. Our results suggest that prediabetes should be treated aggressively to prevent future microvascular events, and effective non-surgical treatments need to be developed for this purpose.US National Institutes of Health, Swedish Research Council, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Regional Agreement on Medical Education and Research, and Swedish Diabetes Foundation.
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5.
  • Gimsing, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of pamidronate 30 mg versus 90 mg on physical function in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Nordic Myeloma Study Group): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 11:10, s. 973-982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Compared with placebo, prophylactic treatment with bisphosphonates reduces risk of skeletal events in patients with multiple myeloma. However, because of toxicity associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment, establishing the lowest effective dose is important. This study compared the effect of two doses of pamidronate on health-related quality of life and skeletal morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Methods This double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial was undertaken at 37 clinics in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Patients with multiple myeloma who were starting antimyeloma treatment were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive one of two doses of pamidronate (30 mg or 90 mg) given by intravenous infusion once a month for at least 3 years. Randomisation was done by use of a central, computerised minimisation system. Primary outcome was physical function after 12 months estimated by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire (scale 0-100). All patients who returned questionnaires at 12 months and were still on study treatment were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT00376883. Findings From January, 2001, until August, 2005, 504 patients were randomly assigned to pamidronate 30 mg or 90 mg (252 in each group). 157 patients in the 90 mg group and 156 in the 30 mg group were included in the primary analysis. Mean physical function at 12 months was 66 points (95% CI 62.9-70.0) in the 90 mg group and 68 points (64.6-71.4) in the 30 mg group (95% CI of difference -6.6 to 3.3; p=0.52). Median time to first skeletal-related event in patients who had such an event was 9.2 months (8.1-10.7) in the 90 mg group and 10-2 months (7.3-14.0) in the 30 mg group (p=0.63). In a retrospective analysis, eight patients in the pamidronate 90 mg group developed osteonecrosis of the jaw compared with two patients in the 30 mg group. Interpretation Monthly infusion of pamidronate 30 mg should be the recommended dose for prevention of bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma.
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6.
  • Hjorth, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Thalidomide and dexamethasone vs. bortezomib and dexamethasone for melphalan refractory myeloma: a randomized study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of haematology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0902-4441 .- 1600-0609. ; 88:6, s. 485-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives:  Thalidomide and bortezomib have been frequently used for second-line therapy in patients with myeloma relapsing after or refractory to initial melphalan-based treatment, but no randomized trials have been published comparing these two treatment alternatives. Methods:  Thalidomide- and bortezomib-naïve patients with melphalan refractory myeloma were randomly assigned to low-dose thalidomide + dexamethasone (Thal-Dex) or bortezomib + dexamethasone (Bort-Dex). At progression on either therapy, the patients were offered crossover to the alternative drug combination. An estimated 300 patients would be needed for the trial to detect a 50% difference in median PFS between the treatment arms. Results:  After inclusion of 131 patients, the trial was prematurely closed because of low accrual. Sixty-seven patients were randomized to Thal-Dex and 64 to Bort-Dex. Progression-free survival was similar (median, 9.0 months for Thal-Dex and 7.2 for Bort-Dex). Response rate was similar (55% for Thal-Dex and 63% for Bort-Dex), but time to response was shorter (P < 0.05) and the VGPR rate higher (P < 0.01) for Bort-Dex. Time-to-other treatment after crossover was similar (median, 13.2 months for Thal-Dex and 11.2 months for Bort-Dex), as was overall survival (22.8 months for Thal-Dex and 19.0 for Bort-Dex). Venous thromboembolism was seen in seven patients and cerebrovascular events in four patients in the Thal-Dex group. Severe neuropathy, reactivation of herpes virus infections, and mental depression were more frequently observed in the Bort-Dex group. In the quality-of-life analysis, no difference was noted for physical function, pain, and global quality of life. Fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in the Bort-Dex group. Conclusions:  Thalidomide (50–100 mg daily) in combination with dexamethasone seems to have an efficacy comparable with that of bortezomib and dexamethasone in melphalan refractory myeloma. However, the statistical strength of the results in this study is limited by the low number of included patients.
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  • Ilander, M., et al. (författare)
  • Increased proportion of mature NK cells is associated with successful imatinib discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0887-6924 .- 1476-5551. ; 31:5, s. 1108-1116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies suggest that a proportion of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in deep molecular remission can discontinue the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment without disease relapse. In this multi-center, prospective clinical trial (EURO-SKI, NCT01596114) we analyzed the function and phenotype of T and NK cells and their relation to successful TKI cessation. Lymphocyte subclasses were measured from 100 imatinib-treated patients at baseline and 1 month after the discontinuation, and functional characterization of NK and T cells was done from 45 patients. The proportion of NK cells was associated with the molecular relapse-free survival as patients with higher than median NK-cell percentage at the time of drug discontinuation had better probability to stay in remission. Similar association was not found with T or B cells or their subsets. In non-relapsing patients the NK-cell phenotype was mature, whereas patients with more naive CD56(bright) NK cells had decreased relapse-free survival. In addition, the TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma cytokine secretion by NK cells correlated with the successful drug discontinuation. Our results highlight the role of NK cells in sustaining remission and strengthen the status of CML as an immunogenic tumor warranting novel clinical trials with immunomodulating agents.
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