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Sökning: WFRF:(Hodson Leanne)

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  • Rosqvist, Fredrik, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 109:2, s. 260-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL. Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet. Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using (H2O)-H-2(deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Neither the lipogenic index (16: 0/18: 2n-6) nor the SCD index (16: 1n-7/16: 0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = -0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14: 0, 16: 0, and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r <= 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16: 1n-7, 18: 1n-7, and 18: 1n-9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14: 0 and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low(3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL. Conclusions: The usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.
  • Westerbacka, Jukka, et al. (författare)
  • Splanchnic balance of free fatty acids, endocannabinoids, and lipids in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : Saunders Elsevier. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 139:6, s. 1961-1971.e1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Animal studies suggest that endocannabinoids could contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, NAFLD has been shown to be associated with multiple changes in lipid concentrations in liver biopsies. There are no data on splanchnic free fatty acid (FFA), glycerol, ketone body, endocannabinoid, and lipid fluxes in vivo in subjects with NAFLD.METHODS: We performed hepatic venous catheterization studies in combination with [(2)H(2)]palmitate infusion in the fasting state and during a low-dose insulin infusion in 9 subjects with various degrees of hepatic steatosis as determined using liver biopsy. Splanchnic balance of endocannabinoids and individual lipids was determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol were higher in arterialized (91 ± 33 μg/L basally) than in hepatic venous (51 ± 19 μg/L; P < .05) plasma. Fasting arterial (r = 0.72; P = .031) and hepatic venous (r = 0.70; P = .037) concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglycerol were related positively to liver fat content. Analysis of fluxes of 85 different triglycerides showed that the fatty liver overproduces saturated triglycerides. In the plasma FFA fraction in the basal state, the relative amounts of palmitoleate and linoleate were lower and those of stearate and oleate were higher in the hepatic vein than in the artery. Absolute concentrations of all nontriglyceride lipids were comparable in arterialized venous plasma and the hepatic vein both in the basal and insulin-stimulated states.CONCLUSIONS: The human fatty liver takes up 2-arachidonoylglycerol and overproduces triacylglycerols containing saturated fatty acids, which might reflect increased de novo lipogenesis.
  • Green, Charlotte J., et al. (författare)
  • Studying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease : the ins and outs of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro human models
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation. - 1868-1883 .- 1868-1891. ; 41:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. Determining the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of human NAFLD will allow for evidence-based prevention strategies, and more targeted mechanistic investigations. Various in vivo, ex situ and in vitro models may be utilised to study NAFLD; but all come with their own specific caveats. Here, we review the human-based models and discuss their advantages and limitations in regards to studying the development and progression of NAFLD. Overall, in vivo whole-body human studies are advantageous in that they allow for investigation within the physiological setting, however, limited accessibility to the liver makes direct investigations challenging. Non-invasive imaging techniques are able to somewhat overcome this challenge, whilst the use of stable-isotope tracers enables mechanistic insight to be obtained. Recent technological advances (i.e. normothermic machine perfusion) have opened new opportunities to investigate whole-organ metabolism, thus ex situ livers can be investigated directly. Therefore, investigations that cannot be performed in vivo in humans have the potential to be undertaken. In vitro models offer the ability to perform investigations at a cellular level, aiding in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of NAFLD. However, a number of current models do not closely resemble the human condition and work is ongoing to optimise culturing parameters in order to recapitulate this. In summary, no single model currently provides insight into the development, pathophysiology and progression across the NAFLD spectrum, each experimental model has limitations, which need to be taken into consideration to ensure appropriate conclusions and extrapolation of findings are made.
  • Hodson, Leanne, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of dietary fatty acids on liver fat content and metabolism
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. - : CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. - 0029-6651 .- 1475-2719. ; 79:1, s. 30-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis through to cirrhosis; obesity is a known risk factor. The liver plays a major role in regulating fatty acid metabolism and perturbations in intrahepatic processes have potential to impact on metabolic health. It remains unclear why intra-hepatocellular fat starts to accumulate, but it likely involves an imbalance between fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver and TAG export from the liver. As man spends the majority of the day in a postprandial rather than postabsorptive state, dietary fatty acid intake should be taken into consideration when investigating why intra-hepatic fat starts to accumulate. This review will discuss the impact of the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids on liver fat accumulation and metabolism, along with some of the potential mechanisms involved. Studies investigating the role of dietary fat in liver fat accumulation, although surprisingly limited, have clearly demonstrated that it is total energy intake, rather than fat intake per se, that is a key mediator of liver fat content; hyperenergetic diets increase liver fat whilst hypoenergetic diets decrease liver fat content irrespective of total fat content. Moreover, there is now, albeit limited evidence emerging to suggest the composition of dietary fat may also play a role in liver fat accumulation, with diets enriched in saturated fat appearing to increase liver fat content to a greater extent when compared with diets enriched in unsaturated fats.
  • Hodson, Leanne, et al. (författare)
  • Using total plasma triacylglycerol to assess hepatic de novo lipogenesis as an alternative to VLDL triacylglycerol
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 125:3, s. 211-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) is ideally measured in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol (TAG). In the fasting state, the majority of plasma TAG typically represents VLDL-TAG; however, the merits of measuring DNL in total plasma TAG have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the performance of DNL measured in VLDL-TAG (DNLVLDL-TAG) compared to that measured in total plasma TAG (DNLPlasma-TAG).Methods: Using deuterated water, newly synthesised palmitate was determined in fasting plasma VLDL-TAG and total TAG in 63 subjects taking part in multiple studies resulting in n = 123 assessments of DNL (%new palmitate of total palmitate). Subjects were split into tertiles to investigate if DNLPlasma-TAG could correctly classify subjects having ‘high’ (top tertile) and ‘low’ (bottom tertile) DNL. Repeatability was assessed in a subgroup (n = 16) with repeat visits.Results: DNLVLDL-TAG was 6.8% (IQR 3.6–10.7%) and DNLPlasma-TAG was 7.5% (IQR 4.0%−11.0%), and the correlation between the methods was rs = 0.62 (p < 0.0001). Bland–Altman plots demonstrated similar performance (mean difference 0.81%, p = 0.09); however, the agreement interval was wide (−9.6% to 11.2%). Compared to DNLVLDL-TAG, 54% of subjects with low DNL were correctly classified, whilst 66% of subjects with high DNL were correctly classified using DNLPlasma-TAG. Repeatability was acceptable (i.e. not different) at the group level, but the majority of subjects had an intra-individual variability over 25%.Conclusion: DNL in total plasma TAG performed similarly to DNL in VLDL-TAG at the group level, but there was large variability at the individual level. We suggest that plasma TAG could be useful for comparing DNL between groups.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K., et al. (författare)
  • Human PNPLA3-I148M variant increases hepatic retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JCI Insight. - : American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI). - 2379-3708. ; 4:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The common patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) variant I148M predisposes to nonalcoholic liver disease but not its metabolic sequelae. We compared the handling of labeled polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in vivo in humans and in cells harboring different PNPLA3 genotypes. In 148M homozygous individuals, triglycerides (TGs) in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were depleted of PUFAs both under fasting and postprandial conditions compared with 148I homozygotes, and the PUFA/SFA ratio in VLDL-TGs was lower relative to the chylomicron precursor pool. In human PNPLA3-148M and PNPLA3-KO cells, PUFA but not SFA incorporation into TGs was increased at the expense of phosphatidylcholines, and under lipolytic conditions, PUFA-containing diacylglycerols (DAGs) accumulated compared with PNPLA3-148I cells. Polyunsaturated TGs were increased, while phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were decreased in the human liver in 148M homozygous individuals as compared with 148I homozygotes. We conclude that human PNPLA3-I148M is a loss-of-function allele that remodels liver TGs in a polyunsaturated direction by impairing hydrolysis/transacylation of PUFAs from DAGs to feed phosphatidylcholine synthesis.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K., et al. (författare)
  • Hydroxysteroid 17-β dehydrogenase 13 variant increases phospholipids and protects against fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JCI Insight. - : American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 2379-3708. ; 5:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carriers of the hydroxysteroid 17-β dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene variant (rs72613567:TA) have a reduced risk of NASH and cirrhosis but not steatosis. We determined its effect on liver histology, lipidome, and transcriptome using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. In carriers and noncarriers of the gene variant, we also measured pathways of hepatic fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis [DNL] and adipose tissue lipolysis [ATL] using 2H2O and 2H-glycerol) and insulin sensitivity using 3H-glucose and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and plasma cytokines. Carriers and noncarriers had similar age, sex and BMI. Fibrosis was significantly less frequent while phospholipids, but not other lipids, were enriched in the liver in carriers compared with noncarriers. Expression of 274 genes was altered in carriers compared with noncarriers, consisting predominantly of downregulated inflammation-related gene sets. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were lower, but DNL, ATL and hepatic insulin sensitivity were similar between the groups. In conclusion, carriers of the HSD17B13 variant have decreased fibrosis and expression of inflammation-related genes but increased phospholipids in the liver. These changes are not secondary to steatosis, DNL, ATL, or hepatic insulin sensitivity. The increase in phospholipids and decrease in fibrosis are opposite to features of choline-deficient models of liver disease and suggest HSD17B13 as an attractive therapeutic target.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K., et al. (författare)
  • Saturated fat is more metabolically harmful for the human liver than unsaturated fat or simple sugars
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548 .- 0149-5992. ; 41:8, s. 1732-1739
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 ± 2 years, BMI 31 ± 1 kg/m2, liver fat 4.7 ± 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured IHTG (1H-MRS), pathways contributing to IHTG (lipolysis ([2H5]glycerol) and DNL (2H2O) basally and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia), insulin resistance, endotoxemia, plasma ceramides, and adipose tissue gene expression at 0 and 3 weeks. RESULTS: Overfeeding SAT increased IHTG more (+55%) than UNSAT (+15%, P < 0.05). CARB increased IHTG (+33%) by stimulating DNL (+98%). SAT significantly increased while UNSAT decreased lipolysis. SAT induced insulin resistance and endotoxemia and significantly increased multiple plasma ceramides. The diets had distinct effects on adipose tissue gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Macronutrient composition of excess energy influences pathways of IHTG: CARB increases DNL, while SAT increases and UNSAT decreases lipolysis. SAT induced the greatest increase in IHTG, insulin resistance, and harmful ceramides. Decreased intakes of SAT could be beneficial in reducing IHTG and the associated risk of diabetes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
  • Marinou, Kyriakoula, et al. (författare)
  • Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The British journal of nutrition. - 1475-2662 .- 0007-1145. ; 105:6, s. 857-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Before the menopause, women are relatively protected against CVD compared with men. The reasons for this sex difference are not completely understood, but hepatic fatty acid metabolism may play a role. The present study aimed to investigate the utilisation of plasma NEFA by the liver and to determine whether they are partitioned differently into ketone bodies and VLDL-TAG in healthy, lean young men and women. Volunteers were studied during a prolonged overnight fast (12-19 h) using an intravenous infusion of [U-¹³C]palmitate. After 12 h fasting, the women had a more advantageous metabolic profile with lower plasma glucose (P < 0·05) and TAG (P < 0·05) but higher plasma NEFA (P < 0·05) concentrations. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) concentrations rose more in women than in men, and the transfer of ¹³C from [U-¹³C]palmitate to plasma [¹³C]3-OHB reached a plateau 6-7 h after the start of the infusion in women but was still increasing at 6 h in men. This implies a slower 3-OHB production rate and/or dilution by other precursor pools in men. In women, the high isotopic enrichment of plasma 3-OHB suggested that systemic plasma fatty acids were the major source of 3-OHB production. However, in men, this was not observed during the course of the study (P < 0·01). There were no sex differences for the incorporation of ¹³C into VLDL1- or VLDL2-TAG. The ability of young women to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG may contribute to their more advantageous metabolic profile compared with young men.
  • Nikolaou, Nikolaos, et al. (författare)
  • AKR1D1 is a novel regulator of metabolic phenotype in human hepatocytes and is dysregulated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Metabolism: clinical and experimental. - 1532-8600. ; 99, s. 67-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Steroid hormones and bile acids are potent regulators of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) is highly expressed in human liver where it inactivates steroid hormones and catalyzes a fundamental step in bile acid synthesis.Human liver biopsies were obtained from 34 obese patients and AKR1D1 mRNA expression levels were measured using qPCR. Genetic manipulation of AKR1D1 was performed in human HepG2 and Huh7 liver cell lines. Metabolic assessments were made using transcriptome analysis, western blotting, mass spectrometry, clinical biochemistry, and enzyme immunoassays.In human liver biopsies, AKR1D1 expression decreased with advancing steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. Expression was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes. In human liver cell lines, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased primary bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone clearance. RNA-sequencing identified disruption of key metabolic pathways, including insulin action and fatty acid metabolism. AKR1D1 knockdown increased hepatocyte triglyceride accumulation, insulin sensitivity, and glycogen synthesis, through increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased β-oxidation, fueling hepatocyte inflammation. Pharmacological manipulation of bile acid receptor activation prevented the induction of lipogenic and carbohydrate genes, suggesting that the observed metabolic phenotype is driven through bile acid rather than steroid hormone availability.Genetic manipulation of AKR1D1 regulates the metabolic phenotype of human hepatoma cell lines, driving steatosis and inflammation. Taken together, the observation that AKR1D1 mRNA is down-regulated with advancing NAFLD suggests that it may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease.
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