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Sökning: WFRF:(Hoekstra Pieter J.)

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1.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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2.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
3.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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4.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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5.
  • Thompson, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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6.
  • Kaufmann, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1097-6256. ; 22:10, s. 1617-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.
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7.
  • van der Meer, Dennis, et al. (författare)
  • Brain scans from 21,297 individuals reveal the genetic architecture of hippocampal subfield volumes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure, comprising histologically distinguishable subfields. These subfields are differentially involved in memory consolidation, spatial navigation and pattern separation, complex functions often impaired in individuals with brain disorders characterized by reduced hippocampal volume, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Given the structural and functional heterogeneity of the hippocampal formation, we sought to characterize the subfields' genetic architecture. T1-weighted brain scans (n = 21,297, 16 cohorts) were processed with the hippocampal subfields algorithm in FreeSurfer v6.0. We ran a genome-wide association analysis on each subfield, co-varying for whole hippocampal volume. We further calculated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of 12 subfields, as well as their genetic correlation with each other, with other structural brain features and with AD and schizophrenia. All outcome measures were corrected for age, sex and intracranial volume. We found 15 unique genome-wide significant loci across six subfields, of which eight had not been previously linked to the hippocampus. Top SNPs were mapped to genes associated with neuronal differentiation, locomotor behaviour, schizophrenia and AD. The volumes of all the subfields were estimated to be heritable (h2 from 0.14 to 0.27, all p < 1 × 10-16) and clustered together based on their genetic correlations compared with other structural brain features. There was also evidence of genetic overlap of subicular subfield volumes with schizophrenia. We conclude that hippocampal subfields have partly distinct genetic determinants associated with specific biological processes and traits. Taking into account this specificity may increase our understanding of hippocampal neurobiology and associated pathologies.
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8.
  • de Langen, Adrianus J, et al. (författare)
  • Monitoring response to antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer using imaging markers derived from PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505 .- 1535-5667. ; 52:1, s. 48-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With antiangiogenic agents, tumor shrinkage may be absent, despite survival benefit. The present study assessed the predictive value of molecular imaging for the identification of survival benefit during antiangiogenic treatment with bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer.Methods:Patients were evaluated using an imaging protocol including CT, 18F-FDG PET, H215O PET, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to derive measurements on tumor size, glucose metabolism, perfusion, and microvascular permeability. The percentage change in imaging parameters after 3 wk of treatment as compared with baseline was calculated and correlated with progression-free survival (PFS).Results:Forty-four patients were included, and 40 underwent CT and 18F-FDG PET at both time points. Complete datasets, containing all imaging modalities, were available for 14 patients. Bevacizumab and erlotinib treatment resulted in decreased metabolism, perfusion, and tumor size. A decrease in standardized uptake value or tumor perfusion of more than 20% at week 3 was associated with longer PFS (9.7 vs. 2.8 mo, P = 0.01, and 12.5 vs. 2.9 mo, P = 0.009, respectively). Whole-tumor Ktrans (the endothelial transfer constant) was not associated with PFS, but patients with an increase of more than 15% in the SD of tumor Ktrans values—that is, an increase in regions with low or high Ktrans values—after 3 wk had shorter PFS (2.3 vs. 7.0 mo, P = 0.008). A partial response, according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), at week 3 was also associated with prolonged PFS (4.6 vs. 2.9 mo, P = 0.017). However, 40% of patients with a partial response as their best RECIST response still had stable disease at week 3. In these cases tumor perfusion was already decreased and Ktrans heterogeneity showed no increase, indicating that the latter parameters seem to be more discriminative than RECIST at the 3-wk time point.Conclusion:PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were able to identify patients who benefit from bevacizumab and erlotinib treatment. Molecular imaging seems to allow earlier response evaluation than CT.
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9.
  • Danad, Ibrahim, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery intima-media thickness, but not coronary artery calcium, predicts coronary vascular resistance in patients evaluated for coronary artery disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal: Cardiovascular Imaging. - 2047-2404. ; 13:4, s. 317-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims There is growing evidence that coronary artery disease (CAD) affects not only the conduit epicardial coronary arteries, but also the microvascular coronary bed. Moreover, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD) often precedes the stage of clinically overt epicardial CAD. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) measured with computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, respectively, are among the available techniques to non-invasively assess atherosclerotic burden. An increased CAC score and C-IMT have also been associated with CMVD. It is therefore of interest to explore and compare the potential of CAC against C-IMT to predict minimal coronary vascular resistance (CVR). Methods and results We evaluated 120 patients (mean age 56 +/- 9 years, 58 men) without a documented history of CAD in whom and results obstructive CAD was excluded. All patients underwent C-IMT measurements, CAC scoring, and vasodilator stress O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, during which the coronary flow reserve (CFR) and minimal CVR were analysed. Minimal CVR increased significantly with increasing tertiles of C-IMT (22 +/- 6, 27 +/- 11, and 28 +/- 9 mmHg mL(-1) min(-1) g(-1), P < 0.01), whereas the CFR was comparable across all C-IMT groups (P = 0.50). Minimal CVR increased significantly with an increase in CAC score (23 +/- 9, 27 +/- 8, 32 +/- 10, and 32 +/- 7 mmHg mL(-1) min(-1) g(-1). P < 0.01), whereas the CFR did not show a significant decrease with higher CAC scores (P = 0.18). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that C-IMT (P = 0.03), but not CAC, was independently associated with minimal CVR. Conclusion C-IMT, but not CAC score, independently predicts minimal CVR in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and suspected of CAD.
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10.
  • Danad, Ibrahim, et al. (författare)
  • Coronary risk factors and myocardial blood flow in patients evaluated for coronary artery disease : a quantitative [15O]H2O PET/CT study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 39:1, s. 102-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThere has been increasing interest in quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) imaging over the last years and it is expected to become a routinely used technique in clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) using [15O]H2O is the established gold standard for quantification of MBF in vivo. A fundamental issue when performing quantitative MBF imaging is to define the limits of MBF in a clinically suitable population. The aims of the present study were to determine the limits of MBF and to determine the relationship among coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, gender and MBF in a predominantly symptomatic patient cohort without significant CAD.MethodsA total of 128 patients (mean age 54 ± 10 years, 50 men) with a low to intermediate pretest likelihood of CAD were referred for noninvasive evaluation of CAD using a hybrid PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner. MBF was quantified with [15O]H2O at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia. Obstructive CAD was excluded in these patients by means of invasive or CT-based coronary angiography.ResultsGlobal average baseline MBF values were 0.91 ± 0.34 and 1.09 ± 0.30  ml·min−1·g−1 (range 0.54–2.35  and 0.59–2.75 ml·min−1·g−1) in men and women, respectively (p < 0.01). However, no gender-dependent difference in baseline MBF was seen following correction for rate–pressure product (0.98 ± 0.45 and 1.09 ± 0.30 ml·min−1·g−1 in men and women, respectively; p = 0.08). Global average hyperaemic MBF values were 3.44 ± 1.20 ml·min−1·g−1 in the whole study population, and 2.90 ± 0.85 and 3.78 ± 1.27 ml·min−1·g−1 (range 1.52–5.22 and 1.72–8.15 ml·min−1·g−1) in men and women, respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified male gender, age and body mass index as having an independently negative impact on hyperaemic MBF.ConclusionGender, age and body mass index substantially influence reference values and should be corrected for when interpreting hyperaemic MBF values.
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