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Sökning: WFRF:(Hoffman Bolton Judy)

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1.
  • Eliassen, A. Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Carotenoids and Risk of Breast Cancer : Pooled Analysis of Eight Prospective Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 104:24, s. 1905-1916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Carotenoids, micronutrients in fruits and vegetables, may reduce breast cancer risk. Most, but not all, past studies of circulating carotenoids and breast cancer have found an inverse association with at least one carotenoid, although the specific carotenoid has varied across studies. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight cohort studies comprising more than 80% of the world's published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer, including 3055 case subjects and 3956 matched control subjects. To account for laboratory differences and examine population differences across studies, we recalibrated participant carotenoid levels to a common standard by reassaying 20 plasma or serum samples from each cohort together at the same laboratory. Using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for several breast cancer risk factors, we calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using quintiles defined among the control subjects from all studies. All P values are two-sided. Statistically significant inverse associations with breast cancer were observed for -carotene (top vs bottom quintile RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, Ptrend .04), -carotene (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98, Ptrend .02), luteinzeaxanthin (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.01, Ptrend .05), lycopene (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99, Ptrend .02), and total carotenoids (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.96, Ptrend .01). -Cryptoxanthin was not statistically significantly associated with risk. Tests for heterogeneity across studies were not statistically significant. For several carotenoids, associations appeared stronger for estrogen receptor negative (ER) than for ER tumors (eg, -carotene: ER: top vs bottom quintile RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.77, Ptrend .001; ER: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.04, Ptrend .06; Pheterogeneity .01). This comprehensive prospective analysis suggests women with higher circulating levels of -carotene, -carotene, luteinzeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids may be at reduced risk of breast cancer. </p>
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2.
  • Eliassen, A Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 104:24, s. 1905-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Carotenoids, micronutrients in fruits and vegetables, may reduce breast cancer risk. Most, but not all, past studies of circulating carotenoids and breast cancer have found an inverse association with at least one carotenoid, although the specific carotenoid has varied across studies. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of eight cohort studies comprising more than 80% of the world's published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer, including 3055 case subjects and 3956 matched control subjects. To account for laboratory differences and examine population differences across studies, we recalibrated participant carotenoid levels to a common standard by reassaying 20 plasma or serum samples from each cohort together at the same laboratory. Using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for several breast cancer risk factors, we calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using quintiles defined among the control subjects from all studies. All P values are two-sided. Results Statistically significant inverse associations with breast cancer were observed for α-carotene (top vs bottom quintile RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.05, Ptrend = .04), β-carotene (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98, Ptrend = .02), lutein+zeaxanthin (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.01, Ptrend = .05), lycopene (RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.99, Ptrend = .02), and total carotenoids (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.96, Ptrend = .01). β-Cryptoxanthin was not statistically significantly associated with risk. Tests for heterogeneity across studies were not statistically significant. For several carotenoids, associations appeared stronger for estrogen receptor negative (ER(-)) than for ER(+) tumors (eg, β-carotene: ER(-): top vs bottom quintile RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.77, Ptrend = .001; ER(+): RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.04, Ptrend = .06; Pheterogeneity = .01). Conclusions This comprehensive prospective analysis suggests women with higher circulating levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids may be at reduced risk of breast cancer.
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3.
  • Key, Timothy J., et al. (författare)
  • Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk : pooled analysis of 15 studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 102:5, s. 1142-1157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Individual studies have suggested that circulating carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols may be associated with prostate cancer risk, but the studies have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of the associations of the concentrations of 7 carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol with risk of prostate cancer and to describe whether any associations differ by stage or grade of the disease or other factors. Design: Principal investigators of prospective studies provided individual participant data for prostate cancer cases and controls. Risk by study-specific fifths of each biomarker was estimated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression in matched case-control sets. Results: Data were available for up to 11,239 cases (including 1654 advanced stage and 1741 aggressive) and 18,541 controls from 15 studies. Lycopene was not associated with overall risk of prostate cancer, but there was statistically significant heterogeneity by stage of disease, and the OR for aggressive disease for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of lycopene was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91; P-trend = 0.032). No other carotenoid was significantly associated with overall risk of prostate cancer or with risk of advanced-stage or aggressive disease. For retinol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22; P-trend = 0.015). For alpha-tocopherol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P-trend &lt; 0.001), with significant heterogeneity by stage of disease; the OR for aggressive prostate cancer was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.92; P-trend = 0.001). gamma-Tocopherol was not associated with risk. Conclusions: Overall prostate cancer risk was positively associated with retinol and inversely associated with alpha-tocopherol, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was inversely associated with lycopene and alpha-tocopherol. Whether these associations reflect causal relations is unclear.</p>
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4.
  • Nichols, Hazel B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast Cancer Risk After Recent Childbirth : A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 170:1, s. 22-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth.</p><p><strong>Design:</strong> Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies.</p><p><strong>Setting:</strong> The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group.</p><p><strong>Participants:</strong> Women younger than 55 years.</p><p><strong>Measurements:</strong> During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns.</p><p><strong>Limitations:</strong> Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women.</p><p><strong>Primary Funding Source:</strong> The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.</p>
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5.
  • Nichols, Hazel B., et al. (författare)
  • The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration : A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:9, s. 1360-1369
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individuallevel data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations.</p>
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6.
  • Nichols, Hazel B, et al. (författare)
  • The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration : A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:9, s. 1360-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR.</p>
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