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Sökning: WFRF:(Hofreiter Michael)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa
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2.
  • Barlow, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Middle Pleistocene genome calibrates a revised evolutionary history of extinct cave bears
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - 0960-9822 .- 1879-0445. ; 31:8, s. 1771-1779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Palaeogenomes provide the potential to study evolutionary processes in real time, but this potential is limited by our ability to recover genetic data over extended timescales.1 As a consequence, most studies so far have focused on samples of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age, which covers only a small part of the history of many clades and species. Here, we report the recovery of a low coverage palaeogenome from the petrous bone of a 360,000 year old cave bear from Kudaro 1 cave in the Caucasus Mountains. Analysis of this genome alongside those of several Late Pleistocene cave bears reveals widespread mito-nuclear discordance in this group. Using the time interval between Middle and Late Pleistocene cave bear genomes, we directly estimate ursid nuclear and mitochondrial substitution rates to calibrate their respective phylogenies. This reveals postdivergence mitochondrial transfer as the dominant factor explaining their mito-nuclear discordance. Interestingly, these transfer events were not accompanied by large-scale nuclear introgression. However, we do detect additional instances of nuclear admixture among other cave bear lineages, and between cave bears and brown bears, which are not associated with mitochondrial exchange. Genomic data obtained from the Middle Pleistocene cave bear petrous bone has thus facilitated a revised evolutionary history of this extinct megafaunal group. Moreover, it suggests that petrous bones may provide a means of extending both the magnitude and time depth of palaeogenome retrieval over substantial portions of the evolutionary histories of many mammalian clades.
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  • Hempel, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying the true number of specimens of the extinct blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 11:2100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Native to southern Africa, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus) is the only large African mammal species known to have become extinct in historical times. However, it was poorly documented prior to its extinction ~ 1800 AD, and many of the small number of museum specimens attributed to it are taxonomically contentious. This places limitations on our understanding of its morphology, ecology, and the mechanisms responsible for its demise. We retrieved genetic information from ten of the sixteen putative blue antelope museum specimens using both shotgun sequencing and mitochondrial genome target capture in an attempt to resolve the uncertainty surrounding the identification of these specimens. We found that only four of the ten investigated specimens, and not a single skull, represent the blue antelope. This indicates that the true number of historical museum specimens of the blue antelope is even smaller than previously thought, and therefore hardly any reference material is available for morphometric, comparative and genetic studies. Our study highlights how genetics can be used to identify rare species in natural history collections where other methods may fail or when records are scarce. Additionally, we present an improved mitochondrial reference genome for the blue antelope as well as one complete and two partial mitochondrial genomes. A first analysis of these mitochondrial genomes indicates low levels of maternal genetic diversity in the ‘museum population’, possibly confirming previous results that blue antelope population size was already low at the time of the European colonization of South Africa.
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5.
  • Lippold, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of lost diversity of paternal horse lineages using ancient DNA
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 2, s. 450-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Modern domestic horses display abundant genetic diversity within female-inherited mitochondrial DNA, but practically no sequence diversity on the male-inherited Y chromosome. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this discrepancy, but can only be tested through knowledge of the diversity in both the ancestral (pre-domestication) maternal and paternal lineages. As wild horses are practically extinct, ancient DNA studies offer the only means to assess this ancestral diversity. Here we show considerable ancestral diversity in ancient male horses by sequencing 4 kb of Y chromosomal DNA from eight ancient wild horses and one 2,800-year-old domesticated horse. Both ancient and modern domestic horses form a separate branch from the ancient wild horses, with the Przewalski horse at its base. Our methodology establishes the feasibility of re-sequencing long ancient nuclear DNA fragments and demonstrates the power of ancient Y chromosome DNA sequence data to provide insights into the evolutionary history of populations.
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6.
  • Lorenzen, Eline D., et al. (författare)
  • Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 479:7373, s. 359-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change.
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8.
  • Westbury, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Complete mitochondrial genome of a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), along with phylogenetic considerations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Mitochondrial DNA Part B. - 0343-1223 .- 2014-1130. ; 2:1, s. 298-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis, is the only member of its genus and is thought to occupy a basal position within the dog family. These factors can lead to challenges in complete mitochondrial reconstructions and accurate phylogenetic positioning. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome of the bat-eared fox recovered using shotgun sequencing and iterative mapping to three distantly related species. Phylogenetic analyses placed the bat-eared fox basal in the Canidae family within the clade including true foxes (Vulpes) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes) with high support values. This position is in good agreement with previously published results based on short fragments of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, therefore adding more support to the basal positioning of the bat-eared fox within Canidae.
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9.
  • Westbury, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Aardwolf population diversity and phylogenetic positioning inferred using complete mitochondrial genomes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: African journal of wildlife research. - 2410-7220 .- 2410-8200. ; 49:1, s. 27-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a unique. insectivorous species of the family Hyaenidae. It occupies a disjunct range in eastern and southern Africa and is possibly a remaining member of a historical dog-like hyaena Glade. Although both local and global population status and trends are largely unknown, aardwolves are not uncommon in arid grasslands and the IUCN conservation status of Least Concern appears to be justified. However, they are one of the least studied of the four hyaena species, and we have scarce information about the genetic structure of aardwolf populations. Here, we present the first complete aardwolf mitochondrial genomes and provide novel information about aardwolf evolutionary origins and genetic structure within a single population. Through the investigation of complete mitochondrial genomes from five individuals from a single population within South Africa, we find the mitochondrial diversity of this population to be neither particularly high nor low compared to a number of other mammalian species. Moreover, we also provide additional evidence towards the basal position of the aardwolf within Hyaenidae with a divergence time of 13.0 Ma (95% CI 10.1-16.4 Ma) from all other extant hyaena species.
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10.
  • Westbury, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Ecological Specialisation and Evolutionary Reticulation in Extant Hyaenidae
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 38:9, s. 3884-3897
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the Miocene, Hyaenidae was a highly diverse family of Carnivora that has since been severely reduced to four species; the bone-cracking spotted, striped, and brown hyenas, and the specialised insectivorous aardwolf. Previous studies investigated the evolutionary histories of the spotted and brown hyenas, but little is known about the remaining two species. Moreover, the genomic underpinnings of scavenging and insectivory, defining traits of the extant species, remain elusive. Here, we generated an aardwolf genome and analysed it together with the other three species to reveal their evolutionary relationships, genomic underpinnings of their scavenging and insectivorous lifestyles, and their respective genetic diversities and demographic histories. High levels of phylogenetic discordance suggest gene flow between the aardwolf lineage and the ancestral brown/striped hyena lineage. Genes related to immunity and digestion in the bone-cracking hyenas and craniofacial development in the aardwolf showed the strongest signals of selection, suggesting putative key adaptations to carrion and termite feeding, respectively. A family-wide expansion in olfactory receptor genes suggests an acute sense of smell was a key early adaptation. Finally, we report very low levels of genetic diversity within the brown and striped hyenas despite no signs of inbreeding, putatively linked to their similarly slow decline in Ne over the last ∼2 million years. High levels of genetic diversity and more stable population sizes through time are seen in the spotted hyena and aardwolf. Taken together, our findings highlight how ecological specialisation can impact the evolutionary history, demographics, and adaptive genetic changes of an evolutionary lineage.
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