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1.
  • Backlund, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C influences the autoimmune but not inflammatory response to cartilage type II collagen leading to chronic arthritis development
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research and Therapy. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1478-6362. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is induced after immunization with type II collagen (CII). CIA, like RA, is an autoimmune disease leading to destruction of cartilage and joints, and both the priming and inflammatory phases have been suggested to be dependent on proteases. In particular, the cysteine proteases have been proposed to be detrimental to the arthritic process and even immunomodulatory. A natural inhibitor of cysteine proteases is cystatin C. Methods: Cystatin C-deficient, sufficient and heterozygous mice were tested for onset, incidence and severity of CIA. The effect of cystatin C-deficiency was further dissected by testing the inflammatory effector phase of CIA; that is, collagen antibody-induced arthritis model and priming phase, that is, T cell response both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, in order to determine the importance of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), these cell populations were separated and in vitro T cell responses determined in a mixed co-culture system. Finally, flow cytometry was used in order to further characterize cell populations in cystatin C-deficient mice. Results: Here, we show that mice lacking cystatin C, develop arthritis at a higher incidence and an earlier onset than wild-type controls. Interestingly, when the inflammatory phase of CIA was examined independently from immune priming then cystatin C-deficiency did not enhance the arthritis profile. However, in line with the enhanced CIA, there was an increased T cell and B cell response as delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and anti-CII antibody titers were elevated in the cystatin C-deficient mice after immunization. In addition, the ex vivo naive APCs from cystatin C-deficient mice had a greater capacity to stimulate T cells. Interestingly, dendritic cells had a more activated phenotype in naive cystatin C-deficient mice. Conclusions: The lack of cystatin C enhances CIA and primarily affects in vivo priming of the immune system. Although the mechanism of this is still unknown, we show evidence for a more activated APC compartment, which would elevate the autoimmune response towards CII, thus resulting in an enhanced development of chronic arthritis.
2.
  • Khmaladze, Ia, et al. (författare)
  • Mannan induces ROS-regulated, IL-17A-dependent psoriasis arthritis-like disease in mice.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 111:35, s. 3669-3678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psoriasis (Ps) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) are poorly understood common diseases, induced by unknown environmental factors, affecting skin and articular joints. A single i.p. exposure to mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced an acute inflammation in inbred mouse strains resembling human Ps and PsA-like disease, whereas multiple injections induced a relapsing disease. Exacerbation of disease severity was observed in mice deficient for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, restoration of ROS production, specifically in macrophages, ameliorated both skin and joint disease. Neutralization of IL-17A, mainly produced by γδ T cells, completely blocked disease symptoms. Furthermore, mice depleted of granulocytes were resistant to disease development. In contrast, certain acute inflammatory mediators (C5, Fcγ receptor III, mast cells, and histamine) and adaptive immune players (αβ T and B cells) were redundant in disease induction. Hence, we propose that mannan-induced activation of macrophages leads to TNF-α secretion and stimulation of local γδ T cells secreting IL-17A. The combined action of activated macrophages and IL-17A produced in situ drives neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis and dermis of the skin, leading to disease manifestations. Thus, our finding suggests a new mechanism triggered by exposure to exogenous microbial components, such as mannan, that can induce and exacerbate Ps and PsA.
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3.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution mapping of a complex disease, a model for rheumatoid arthritis, using heterogeneous stock mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 20:15, s. 3031-3041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving the genetic basis of complex diseases like rheumatoid arthritis will require knowledge of the corresponding diseases in experimental animals to enable translational functional studies. Mapping of quantitative trait loci in mouse models of arthritis, such as collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), using F-2 crosses has been successful, but can resolve loci only to large chromosomal regions. Using an inbred-outbred cross design, we identified and fine-mapped CIA loci on a genome-wide scale. Heterogeneous stock mice were first intercrossed with an inbred strain, B10.Q, to introduce an arthritis permitting MHCII haplotype. Homozygous H2(q) mice were then selected to set up an F-3 generation with fixed major histocompatibility complex that was used for arthritis experiments. We identified 26 loci, 18 of which are novel, controlling arthritis traits such as incidence of disease, severity and time of onset and fine-mapped a number of previously mapped loci.
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4.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • The value of animal models in predicting genetic susceptibility to complex diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research and Therapy. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1478-6362. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: For a long time, genetic studies of complex diseases were most successfully conducted in animal models. However, the field of genetics is now rapidly evolving, and human genetics has also started to produce strong candidate genes for complex diseases. This raises the question of how to continue gene-finding attempts in animals and how to use animal models to enhance our understanding of gene function. In this review we summarize the uses and advantages of animal studies in identification of disease susceptibility genes, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis. We are convinced that animal genetics will remain a valuable tool for the identification and investigation of pathways that lead to disease, well into the future.
5.
  • Andersson, Sofia E M, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Collagen epitope expression on B cells is sufficient to confer tolerance to collagen-induced arthritis.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Arthritis research & therapy. - 1478-6362. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms underlying tolerance induction and maintenance in autoimmune arthritis remain elusive. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen type II (CII)-induced arthritis, we explore the contribution of B cells to antigen-specific tolerance.To generate expression of the CII-peptide specifically on B-cell major histocompatibility complex type II, lentiviral-based gene therapy including a B-cell-specific Igk promoter was used.Presentation of the CII-peptide on B cells significantly reduced the frequency and severity of arthritis as well as the serum levels of CII -specific IgG antibodies. Further, both frequency and suppressive function of regulatory T cells were increased in tolerized mice. Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells from tolerized mice to naïve mice ameliorated the development of CII-induced arthritis.Our data suggest that endogenous presentation of the CII-peptide on B cells is one of the key contributors to arthritis tolerance induction and maintenance.
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6.
  • Becanovic, K, et al. (författare)
  • Advanced intercross line mapping of Eae5 reveals Ncf-1 and CLDN4 as candidate genes for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - American Association of Immunologists. - 1550-6606. ; 176:10, s. 6055-6064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eae5 in rats was originally identified in two F-2 intercrosses, (DA x BN) and (E3 X DA), displaying linkage to CNS inflammation and disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), respectively. This region overlaps with an arthritis locus, Pia4, which was also identified in the (E3 X DA) cross. Two congenic strains, BN.DA-Eae5 and BN.DA-Eae5.R1, encompassing the previously described Eae5 and Pia4, were established. DA alleles within the chromosome 12 fragment conferred an increase in disease susceptibility as well as increased inflammation and demyelination in the CNS as compared with BN alleles. To enable a more precise fine mapping of EAE regulatory genes, we used a rat advanced intercross line between the EAE-susceptible DA strain and the EAE-resistant PVG.1AV1 strain. Linkage analysis performed in the advanced intercross line considerably narrowed down the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-EAE regulatory locus (Eae5) to a similar to 1.3-megabase region with a defined number of candidate genes. In this study we demonstrate a regulatory effect of Eae5 on MOG-EAE by using both congenic strains as well as fine mapping these effects to a region containing Ncf-1, a gene associated with arthritis. In addition to structural polymorphisms in Ncf-1, both sequence polymorphisms and expression differences were identified in CLDN4. CLDN4 is a tight junction protein involved in blood-brain barrier integrity. In conclusion, our data strongly suggests Ncf-1 to be a gene shared between two organ-specific inflammatory diseases with a possible contribution by CLDN4 in encephalomyelitis.
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7.
  • Becanovic, K, et al. (författare)
  • New loci regulating rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - American Association of Immunologists. - 1550-6606. ; 170:2, s. 1062-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease in rats that closely mimics many clinical and histopathological aspects of multiple sclerosis. Non-MHC quantitative trait loci regulating myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE have previously been identified in the EAE-permissive strain, DA, on rat chromosomes 4,10,15, and 18. To find any additional gene loci in another well-known EAE-permissive strain and thereby to assess any genetic heterogeneity in the regulation of the disease, we have performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in a reciprocal (LEW.1AV1 x PVG.1AV1) male/female F-2 population (n = 185). We examined reciprocal crosses, but no parent-of-origin effect was detected. The parental rat strains share the RT1(av1) MHC haplotype; thus, non-MHC genes control differences in EAE susceptibility. We identified Eae(16) on chromosome 8 and Eae17 on chromosome 13, significantly linked to EAE phenotypes. Two loci, on chromosomes 1 and 17, respectively showed suggestive linkage to clinical and histopathological EAE phenotypes. Eae16 and Eae17 differ from those found in previously studied strain combinations, thus demonstrating genetic heterogeneity of EAE. Furthermore, we detected a locus-specific parent-of-origin effect with suggestive linkage in Eae17. Further genetic and functional dissection of these loci may disclose critical disease-regulating molecular mechanisms.
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8.
  • Bersellini Farinotti, Alex, et al. (författare)
  • Cartilage-binding antibodies induce pain through immune complex-mediated activation of neurons
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 216:8, s. 1904-1924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rheumatoid arthritis-associated joint pain is frequently observed independent of disease activity, suggesting unidentified pain mechanisms. We demonstrate that antibodies binding to cartilage, specific for collagen type II (CII) or cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), elicit mechanical hypersensitivity in mice, uncoupled from visual, histological and molecular indications of inflammation. Cartilage antibody-induced pain-like behavior does not depend on complement activation or joint inflammation, but instead on tissue antigen recognition and local immune complex (IC) formation. smFISH and IHC suggest that neuronal Fcgr1 and Fcgr2b mRNA are transported to peripheral ends of primary afferents. CII-ICs directly activate cultured WT but not FcRγ chain-deficient DRG neurons. In line with this observation, CII-IC does not induce mechanical hypersensitivity in FcRγ chain-deficient mice. Furthermore, injection of CII antibodies does not generate pain-like behavior in FcRγ chain-deficient mice or mice lacking activating FcγRs in neurons. In summary, this study defines functional coupling between autoantibodies and pain transmission that may facilitate the development of new disease-relevant pain therapeutics.
9.
  • Blom, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • C4b-binding protein (C4BP) inhibits development of experimental arthritis in mice.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - British Medical Association. - 1468-2060. ; 68, s. 136-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To assess the human complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP) for treatment of arthritis. METHODS: We have used two mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to assess the therapeutic effect of C4BP on different phases of arthritis, the collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA), an acute antibody induced disease and the collagen induced arthritis (CIA), which carries the full complexity of arthritis. RESULTS: Purified human C4BP injected intraperitoneally alleviated CAIA significantly in a manner similar to cobra venom factor that depletes complement due to massive activation. Furthermore, C4BP was injected before and after the disease development into CIA mice. In the former case, the disease onset was delayed and in the latter, the severity of the disease was reduced in animals treated with C4BP. However, C4BP did not affect the anti-CII antibody synthesis. C4BP present in mouse sera decreased activity of the classical but not the alternative pathway of the complement system when these were assessed in a fluid phase. However, C4BP was efficiently inhibiting the alternative pathway when present on the activating surface. Taken together, the disease ameliorating effect of C4BP appears to be related to inhibition of both pathways of complement. CONCLUSIONS: Although human C4BP was cleared relatively fast from the circulation and was only moderately affecting complement activity, its effect on the disease severity was substantial, suggesting that minor alterations in complement activity can have significant therapeutic value in RA.
10.
  • Bäcklund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Reversal of tolerance induced by transplantation of skin expressing the immunodominant T cell epitope of rat type II collagen entitles development of collagen-induced arthritis but not graft rejection.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1521-4141. ; 32:6, s. 1773-1783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is induced in H-2(q) mice after immunization with rat type II collagen (CII). The immunodominant T cell epitope on heterologous CII has been located to CII256-270. We have previously shown that TSC transgenic mice, which express the heterologous epitope in type I collagen (CI), e.g. in skin, are tolerized against rat CII and resistant to CIA. In this study we transplanted skin from TSC transgenic mice onto non-transgenic CIA-susceptible littermates to investigate whether introduction of this epitope to a naïve immune system would lead to T cell priming and graft rejection or instead to tolerance and arthritis protection. Interestingly, TSC grafts were accepted and not even immunization of recipient mice with CII in adjuvant induced graft rejection. Instead, TSC skin recipients displayed a reduced T and B cell response to CII and were also protected from arthritis. However, additional priming could break arthritis protection and was accompanied by an increased T cell response to the grafted epitope. Strikingly, despite the regained T cell response, development of arthritis was not accompanied by graft rejection, showing that these immune-mediated inflammatory responses involve different mechanisms.
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