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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmer H)

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  • Davies, J. I., et al. (författare)
  • Global surgery, obstetric, and anaesthesia indicator definitions and reporting: An Utstein consensus report
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 18:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Indicators to evaluate progress towards timely access to safe surgical, anaesthesia, and obstetric (SAO) care were proposed in 2015 by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery. These aimed to capture access to surgery, surgical workforce, surgical volume, perioperative mortality rate, and catastrophic and impoverishing financial consequences of surgery. Despite being rapidly taken up by practitioners, data points from which to derive the indicators were not defined, limiting comparability across time or settings. We convened global experts to evaluate and explicitly define-for the first time-the indicators to improve comparability and support achievement of 2030 goals to improve access to safe affordable surgical and anaesthesia care globally. Methods and findings The Utstein process for developing and reporting guidelines through a consensus building process was followed. In-person discussions at a 2-day meeting were followed by an iterative process conducted by email and virtual group meetings until consensus was reached. The meeting was held between June 16 to 18, 2019; discussions continued until August 2020. Participants consisted of experts in surgery, anaesthesia, and obstetric care, data science, and health indicators from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Considering each of the 6 indicators in turn, we refined overarching descriptions and agreed upon data points needed for construction of each indicator at current time (basic data points), and as each evolves over 2 to 5 (intermediate) and >5 year (full) time frames. We removed one of the original 6 indicators (one of 2 financial risk protection indicators was eliminated) and refined descriptions and defined data points required to construct the 5 remaining indicators: geospatial access, workforce, surgical volume, perioperative mortality, and catastrophic expenditure. A strength of the process was the number of people from global institutes and multilateral agencies involved in the collection and reporting of global health metrics; a limitation was the limited number of participants from low- or middle-income countries-who only made up 21% of the total attendees. Conclusions To track global progress towards timely access to quality SAO care, these indicators-at the basic level-should be implemented universally as soon as possible. Intermediate and full indicator sets should be achieved by all countries over time. Meanwhile, these evolutions can assist in the short term in developing national surgical plans and collecting more detailed data for research studies.
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  • Holmer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Liver International. - 1478-3223. ; 38:11, s. 2082-2090
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is the second most common cause of liver transplantation in the US. Data on NAFLD as a liver transplantation indication from countries with lower prevalences of obesity are lacking. We studied the temporal trends of NAFLD as an indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries, and compared outcomes for patients with NAFLD to patients with other indications for liver transplantation. MethodResultsPopulation-based cohort study using data from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry on adults listed for liver transplantation between 1994 and 2015. NAFLD as the underlying indication for liver transplantation was defined as a listing diagnosis of NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or cryptogenic cirrhosis with a body mass index 25kg/m(2) and absence of other liver diseases. Waiting time for liver transplantation, mortality and withdrawal from the transplant waiting list were registered. Survival after liver transplantation was calculated using multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and model for end-stage liver disease. A total of 4609 patients listed for liver transplantation were included. NAFLD as the underlying indication for liver transplantation increased from 2.0% in 1994-1995 to 6.2% in 2011-2015 (P=.01) and was the second most rapidly increasing indication. NAFLD patients had higher age, model for end-stage liver disease and body mass index when listed for liver transplantation, but overall survival after liver transplantation was comparable to non--NAFLD patients (aHR 1.03, 95% CI 0.70-1.53 P=.87). ConclusionNAFLD is an increasing indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries. Despite more advanced liver disease, NAFLD patients have a comparable survival to other patients listed for liver transplantation.
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4.
  • Burman, P., et al. (författare)
  • Deaths Among Adult Patients With Hypopituitarism: Hypocortisolism During Acute Stress, and De Novo Malignant Brain Tumors Contribute to an Increased Mortality
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 98:4, s. 1466-1475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for Objective: To investigate in detail the cause of death in a large cohort of patients with hypopituitarism Design and Methods: All-cause and cause-specific mortality in 1286 Swedish patients with Main Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, with stratification for Results: An excess mortality was found, 120 deaths vs 84.3 expected, SMR 1.42 (95% confidence Conclusion: Two important causes of excess mortality were identified: first, adrenal crisis in response
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5.
  • Holmer, A, et al. (författare)
  • Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8-11 years
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research. - 1654-6628 .- 1654-661X. ; 56:10484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8-11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children’s acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children’s acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children’s preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children’s acceptance.
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  • Burman, P., et al. (författare)
  • Deaths among adult patients with hypopituitarism : hypocortisolism during acute stress, and de novo malignant brain tumors contribute to an increased mortality
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 98:4, s. 1466-1475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for this has not been fully clarified.Objective: To investigate in detail the cause of death in a large cohort of patients with hypopituitarism subjected to long-term follow-up.Design and Methods: All-cause and cause-specific mortality in 1286 Swedish patients with hypopituitarism prospectively monitored in KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) 1995-2009 were compared to general population data in the Swedish National Cause of Death Registry. In addition, events reported in KIMS, medical records, and postmortem reports were reviewed.Main Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, with stratification for gender, attained age, and calendar year during follow-up.Results: An excess mortality was found, 120 deaths vs 84.3 expected, SMR 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.70). Infections, brain cancer, and sudden death were associated with significantly increased SMRs (6.32, 9.40, and 4.10, respectively). Fifteen patients, all ACTH-deficient, died from infections. Eight of these patients were considered to be in a state of adrenal crisis in connection with death (medical reports and post-mortem examinations). Another 8 patients died from de novo malignant brain tumors, 6 of which had had a benign pituitary lesion at baseline. Six of these 8 subjects had received prior radiation therapy.Conclusion: Two important causes of excess mortality were identified: first, adrenal crisis in response to acute stress and intercurrent illness; second, increased risk of a late appearance of de novo malignant brain tumors in patients who previously received radiotherapy. Both of these causes may be in part preventable by changes in the management of pituitary disease.
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8.
  • Holmer, Hampus, et al. (författare)
  • The rate and perioperative mortality of caesarean section in Sierra Leone
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2059-7908. ; 4:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Sierra Leone has the world's highest maternal mortality, partly due to low access to caesarean section. Limited data are available to guide improvement. In this study, we aimed to analyse the rate and mortality of caesarean sections in the country. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of all caesarean sections and all reported in-facility maternal deaths in Sierra Leone in 2016. All facilities performing caesarean sections were visited. Data on in-facility maternal deaths were retrieved from the Maternal Death Surveillance and Response database. Caesarean section mortality was defined as in-facility perioperative mortality. Results In 2016, there were 7357 caesarean sections in Sierra Leone. This yields a population rate of 2.9% of all live births, a 35% increase from 2012, with district rates ranging from 0.4% to 5.2%. The most common indications for surgery were obstructed labour (42%), hypertensive disorders (25%) and haemorrhage (22%). Ninety-nine deaths occurred during or after caesarean section, and the in-facility perioperative caesarean section mortality rate was 1.5% (median 0.7%, IQR 0-2.2). Haemorrhage was the leading cause of death (73%), and of those who died during or after surgery, 80% had general anaesthesia, 75% received blood transfusion and 22% had a uterine rupture diagnosed. Conclusions The caesarean section rate has increased rapidly in Sierra Leone, but the distribution remains uneven. Caesarean section mortality is high, but there is wide variation. More access to caesarean sections for maternal and neonatal complications is needed in underserved areas, and expansion should be coupled with efforts to limit late presentation, to offer assisted vaginal delivery when indicated and to ensure optimal perioperative care.
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10.
  • Ehn, S., et al. (författare)
  • Global health education in Swedish medical schools
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 43:7, s. 687-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Methods:Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Results: Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (p<0.001). A majority of Swedish medical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Conclusions: Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century.
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