SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Holmes Chris) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Holmes Chris)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
  • [1]2Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
  •  
2.
  • Singer, Andrew C, et al. (författare)
  • Meeting Report : Risk Assessment of Tamiflu Use Under Pandemic Conditions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. ; 116:11, s. 1563-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On 3 October 2007, 40 participants with diverse expertise attended the workshop Tamiflu and the Environment: Implications of Use under Pandemic Conditions to assess the potential human health impact and environmental hazards associated with use of Tamiflu during an influenza pandemic. Based on the identification and risk-ranking of knowledge gaps, the consensus was that oseltamivir ethylester-phosphate (OE-P) and oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) were unlikely to pose an ecotoxicologic hazard to freshwater organisms. OC in river water might hasten the generation of OC-resistance in wildfowl, but this possibility seems less likely than the potential disruption that could be posed by OC and other pharmaceuticals to the operation of sewage treatment plants. The workgroup members agreed on the following research priorities: a) available data on the ecotoxicology of OE-P and OC should be published ; b) risk should be assessed for OC-contaminated river water generating OC-resistant viruses in wildfowl ; c) sewage treatment plant functioning due to microbial inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors and other antimicrobials used during a pandemic should be investigated ; and d) realistic worst-case exposure scenarios should be developed. Additional modeling would be useful to identify localized areas within river catchments that might be prone to high pharmaceutical concentrations in sewage treatment plant effluent. Ongoing seasonal use of Tamiflu in Japan offers opportunities for researchers to assess how much OC enters and persists in the aquatic environment.
  •  
3.
  • Clark, Andrew G., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 450:7167, s. 203-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.
  •  
4.
  • Nicholson, George, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in Europeans implicates two loci shaped by recent positive selection
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 7:9, s. e1002270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) study of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by 1H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10−11<p<2.8×10−23). Three of these—trimethylamine, 3-amino-isobutyrate, and an N-acetylated compound—were measured in urine. The other—dimethylamine—was measured in plasma. Trimethylamine and dimethylamine mapped to a single genetic region (hence we report a total of three implicated genomic regions). Two of the three hit regions lie within haplotype blocks (at 2p13.1 and 10q24.2) that carry the genetic signature of strong, recent, positive selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%–64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from the corresponding mQTL effects.
  •  
5.
6.
  • Holmes, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMJ-BRIT MED J. - 1756-1833. ; 349, s. g4164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (-0.88 (-1.19 to -0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (-5.2% (-7.8 to -2.4%)), waist circumference (-0.3 (-0.6 to -0.1) cm), and body mass index (-0.17 (-0.24 to -0.10) kg/m(2)). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P= 0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health.
  •  
7.
  • Holmes, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645. ; 36:9, s. 539-539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. Methods and results We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with established associations with HDL-C, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). For each trait, we constructed two scores. The first was unrestricted, including all independent SNPs associated with the lipid trait identified from a priormeta-analysis (threshold P < 2 x 10(-6)); and the second a restricted score, filtered to remove any SNPs also associated with either of the other two lipid traits at P <= 0.01. Mendelian randomization meta-analyses were conducted in 17 studies including 62,199 participants and 12,099 CHD events. Both the unrestricted and restricted allele scores for LDL-C (42 and 19 SNPs, respectively) associated with CHD. For HDL-C, the unrestrictedallele score (48SNPs) was associated with CHD(OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.70), per 1 mmol/L higher HDL-C, but neither the restricted allele score (19 SNPs; OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.98) nor the unrestricted HDL-C allele score adjusted for triglycerides, LDL-C, or statin use (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.46) showed a robust association. For triglycerides, the unrestricted allele score (67 SNPs) and the restricted allele score (27 SNPs) were both associated with CHD (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.11 and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.59, respectively) per 1-log unit increment. However, the unrestricted triglyceride score adjusted for HDL-C, LDL-C, and statin use gave an OR for CHD of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.75). Conclusion The genetic findings support a causal effect of triglycerides on CHD risk, but a causal role for HDL-C, though possible, remains less certain.
8.
  • Holmes, Naomi, et al. (författare)
  • Climatic variability during the last millennium in Western Iceland from lake sediment records
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Holocene. - 0959-6836. ; 26:5, s. 756-771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this research was to create a decadal-scale terrestrial quantitative palaeoclimate record for NW Iceland from lake sediments for the last millennium. Geochemical, stable isotope and chironomid reconstructions were obtained from a lake sequence constrained by tephra deposits on the Snaefellsnes peninsula, western Iceland. Obtaining a quantitative record proved problematic, but the qualitative chironomid record showed clear trends associated with past summer temperatures, and the sedimentological records provided evidence for past changes in precipitation, mediated through catchment soil in-wash. When the full range of chronological uncertainty is considered, four clear phases of climatic conditions were identified: (1) a relatively warm phase between AD 1020 and 1310; (2) a relatively stable period between AD 1310 and 1510, cooler than the preceding period but still notably warmer than the second half of the millennium; (3) a consistent reduction of temperatures between AD 1560 and 1810, with the coolest period between AD 1680 and 1810; and (4) AD 1840-2000 has temperatures mainly warmer than in the preceding two centuries, with a rising trend and increased variability from c. AD 1900 onwards. The reconstructions show clearly that the first half of the millennium experienced warmer climatic conditions than the second half, with a return to the warmer climate only occurring in the last c. 100 years. Much of the variability of the chironomid record can be linked to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The reconstructions presented can track low-frequency and long-term trends effectively and consistently but high-resolution and calibrated quantitative records remain more of a challenge - not just in finding optimal sedimentary deposits but also in finding the most reliable proxy. It is this that presents the real challenge for Holocene climate reconstruction from this key area of the North Atlantic.
  •  
9.
  • Johnson, Toby, et al. (författare)
  • Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 89:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 x 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery, and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 x 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, FIFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.
  •  
10.
  • Kato, Bernet S., et al. (författare)
  • Variance decomposition of protein profiles from antibody arrays using a longitudinal twin model
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proteome Science. - 1477-5956. ; 9:1, s. 73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The advent of affinity-based proteomics technologies for global protein profiling provides the prospect of finding new molecular biomarkers for common, multifactorial disorders. The molecular phenotypes obtained from studies on such platforms are driven by multiple sources, including genetic, environmental, and experimental. In characterizing the contribution of different sources of variation to the measured phenotypes, the aim is to facilitate the design and interpretation of future biomedical studies employing exploratory and multiplexed technologies. Thus, biometrical genetic modelling of twin or other family data can be used to decompose the variation underlying a phenotype into biological and experimental components. RESULTS: Using antibody suspension bead arrays and antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas, we study unfractionated serum from a longitudinal study on 154 twins. In this study, we provide a detailed description of how the variation in a molecular phenotype in terms of protein profile can be decomposed into familial i.e. genetic and common environmental; individual environmental, short-term biological and experimental components. The results show that across 69 antibodies analyzed in the study, the median proportion of the total variation explained by familial sources is 12% (IQR 1-22%), and the median proportion of the total variation attributable to experimental sources is 63% (IQR 53-72%). CONCLUSION: The variability analysis of antibody arrays highlights the importance to consider variability components and their relative contributions when designing and evaluating studies for biomarker discover with exploratory, high-throughput and multiplexed methods.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
  • [1]2Nästa
Åtkomst
fritt online (3)
Typ av publikation
tidskriftsartikel (11)
Typ av innehåll
refereegranskat (11)
Författare/redaktör
Farrall, Martin (5)
Dominiczak, Anna F. (5)
Padmanabhan, Sandosh (5)
Kumari, Meena (5)
Hingorani, Aroon D (5)
Holmes, Michael V. (5)
visa fler...
Humphries, Steve E. (5)
Melander, Olle, (4)
Watkins, Hugh (4)
Asselbergs, Folkert ... (4)
Kivimaki, Mika (4)
Lawlor, Debbie A (4)
Lange, Leslie A. (4)
Gaunt, Tom R. (4)
Shah, Tina (4)
Swerdlow, Daniel I. (4)
Casas, Juan P. (4)
Reiner, Alex P. (4)
Talmud, Philippa J. (4)
Keating, Brendan J. (4)
Morris, Richard (4)
Sacerdote, Carlotta (3)
Hardy, Rebecca (3)
Kuh, Diana (3)
Ford, Ian, (3)
Hofman, Albert, (3)
Fornage, Myriam, (3)
Wareham, Nicholas J. (3)
Linneberg, Allan, (3)
Langenberg, Claudia (3)
Hamsten, Anders (3)
Scott, Robert A (3)
Maitland-van der Zee ... (3)
Samani, Nilesh J. (3)
Siscovick, David S. (3)
Onland-Moret, N Char ... (3)
van der Harst, Pim (3)
Panayiotou, Andrie G (3)
Whincup, Peter H (3)
Smith, George Davey (3)
Wong, Andrew (3)
Malyutina, Sofia (3)
Tamosiunas, Abdonas (3)
Lanktree, Matthew B. (3)
Verweij, Niek (3)
Doevendans, Pieter A ... (3)
Hofker, Marten H. (3)
Redline, Susan (3)
Tsai, Michael Y. (3)
Wilson, James G. (3)
visa färre...
Lärosäte
Uppsala universitet (5)
Lunds universitet (3)
Umeå universitet (2)
Karolinska Institutet (2)
Göteborgs universitet (1)
Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (1)
visa fler...
Stockholms universitet (1)
visa färre...
Språk
Engelska (11)
Forskningsämne (UKÄ/SCB)
Medicin och hälsovetenskap (8)
Naturvetenskap (2)

År

 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy