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Sökning: WFRF:(Houtman M)

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1.
  • Kivimäki, M., et al. (författare)
  • Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease : A collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 380:9852, s. 1491-1497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. Methods We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985-2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Findings 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1•49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7•5 years [SD 1•7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1•23 (95% CI 1•10-1•37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1•43, 1•15-1•77) than unpublished (1•16, 1•02-1•32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1•31, 1•15-1•48) and 5 years (1•30, 1•13-1•50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3•4%. Interpretation Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller effect than would tackling of standard risk factors, such as smoking. Funding Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Academy of Finland, the Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, the German Social Accident Insurance, the Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, the BUPA Foundation, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, and the US National Institutes of Health.
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2.
  • Nyberg, S. T., et al. (författare)
  • Job strain in relation to body mass index : pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 272:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 6573. Background. Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. Objectives. To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population. Methods. We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222). Results. A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.524.9 kg m-2), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m-2), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.029.9 kg m-2) and 13 523 class I (BMI 3034.9 kg m-2) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI = 35 kg m-2) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.021.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.011.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up. Conclusions. In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a U-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a population level.
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3.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I., et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and the risk of stroke : an individual-participant data meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 46:2, s. 557-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain.METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke.RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status.CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.
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4.
  • Fransson, Eleonor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity : An Individual-Participant Meta-analysis of up to 170,000 Men and Women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 176:12, s. 1078-1089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.
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5.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I., et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity : An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women The IPD-Work Consortium
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Cary : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 176:12, s. 1078-1089
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.
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6.
  • Heikkilä, Katriina, et al. (författare)
  • Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116 000 European men and women
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1756-1833. ; 345:f165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.Design Meta-analysis of pooled prospective individual participant data from 12 European cohort studies including 116 056 men and women aged 17-70 who were free from cancer at study baseline and were followed-up for a median of 12 years. Work stress was measured and defined as job strain, which was self reported at baseline. Incident cancers (all n=5765, colorectal cancer n=522, lung cancer n=374, breast cancer n=1010, prostate cancer n=865) were ascertained from cancer, hospital admission, and death registers. Data were analysed in each study with Cox regression and the study specific estimates pooled in meta-analyses. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intakeResults A harmonised measure of work stress, high job strain, was not associated with overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.04) in the multivariable adjusted analyses. Similarly, no association was observed between job strain and the risk of colorectal (1.16, 0.90 to 1.48), lung (1.17, 0.88 to 1.54), breast (0.97, 0.82 to 1.14), or prostate (0.86, 0.68 to 1.09) cancers. There was no clear evidence for an association between the categories of job strain and the risk of cancer.Conclusions These findings suggest that work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, at baseline is unlikely to be an important risk factor for colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.
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7.
  • Kivimäki, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke : a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 386:10005, s. 1739-1746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. Findings: We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603 838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease at baseline; the meta-analysis of stroke comprised data for 528 908 men and women who were free from stroke at baseline. Follow-up for coronary heart disease was 5.1 million person-years (mean 8.5 years), in which 4768 events were recorded, and for stroke was 3.8 million person-years (mean 7.2 years), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (>= 55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; p=0.02) and incident stroke (1.33, 1.11-1.61; p=0.002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1.30-1.42). We recorded a dose-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1.10 (95% CI 0.94-1.28; p=0.24) for 41-48 working hours, 1.27 (1.03-1.56; p=0.03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1.33 (1.11-1.61; p=0.002) for 55 working hours or more per week compared with standard working hours (p(trend)<0.0001). Interpretation: Employees who work long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours.
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8.
  • Heikkila, Katriina, et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain and Alcohol Intake : A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:7, s. Art. no. e40101-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: > 20, men: > 27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.
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9.
  • Heikkila, Katriina, et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking : An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.
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10.
  • de Smet, P., et al. (författare)
  • Gender and regional differences in perceived job stress across Europe
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Eur J Public Health. - : Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262. ; 15:5, s. 536-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Over the last 20 years stress at work has been found to be predictive of several conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and non-specific sick leave. The Karasek demand/control/strain concept has been the most widely used in prospective epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: To describe distribution in Karasek's demand/control (DC) dimensions as well as prevalence of strain in samples from different parts of Europe grouped into three regions (South, Middle, Sweden), adjusting for occupation. To describe gender differences in Karasek's DC dimensions along with strain prevalence and assess the regional stability of those differences in different occupational groups. DESIGN: The Job stress, Absenteeism and Coronary heart disease in Europe (JACE) study, a Concerted Action (Biomed I) of the European Union, is a multicentre prospective cohort epidemiological study: 38,019 subjects at work aged 35-59 years were surveyed at baseline. Standardised techniques were used for occupation coding (International Standardised Classification of Occupations) and for the DC model (Karasek scale): five items for the psychological demand and nine items for the control or decision latitude dimensions, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 34,972 subjects had a complete data set. There were important regional differences in the Karasek scales and in prevalence of strain even after adjustment for occupational class. Mean demand and control were higher in the Swedish centres when compared to two centres in Milano and Barcelona (Southern region) and values observed in four centres (Ghent, Brussels, Lille and Hoofddorp) in Middle Europe were closer to those observed in the Southern cities than to those obtained in the Swedish cities. Clerks (ISCO 4) and, more specifically, office clerks (ISCO 41) exhibited the smallest regional variation. In a multivariate model, the factor 'region' explained a small fraction of total variance. In the two Southern centres as well as in the four Middle European centres, men perceived marginally less job-demand as compared to women whereas the reverse was observed in the two Swedish centres. Differences were larger for control: men appeared to perceive more control at work than did women. In a multivariate model, gender explained a small fraction whereas occupational level explained a large fraction of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: In this standardised multicentre European study Karasek's DC model showed large gender and occupational differences whereas geographic region explained a small fraction of the total DC variance, notwithstanding large differences in labour market and working conditions as pointed out by the European Commission as recently as 2000.
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