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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Hov JR) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Hov JR)

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1.
  • Hov, J. R., et al. (författare)
  • Electrostatic Modifications of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR P9 Peptide-Binding Pocket and Susceptibility to Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 53:6, s. 1967-1976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The strongest genetic risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are found in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex at chromosome 6p21. Genes in the HLA class II region encode molecules that present antigen to T lymphocytes. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with most autoimmune diseases, most likely because they contribute to the specificity of immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure and electrostatic properties of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DR in relation to PSC. Thus, four-digit resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed in 356 PSC patients and 366 healthy controls. Sequence information was used to assign which amino acids were encoded at all polymorphic positions. In stepwise logistic regressions, variations at residues 37 and 86 were independently associated with PSC (P = 1.2 x 10(-32) and P = 1.8 x 10(-22) in single-residue models, respectively). Three-dimensional modeling was performed to explore the effect of these key residues on the HLA-DR molecule. This analysis indicated that residue 37 was a major determinant of the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 of the peptide-binding groove. Asparagine at residue 37, which was associated with PSC, induced a positive charge in pocket P9. Tyrosine, which protected against PSC, induced a negative charge in this pocket. Consistent with the statistical observations, variation at residue 86 also indirectly influenced the electrostatic properties of this pocket. DRB1*13:01, which was PSC-associated, had a positive P9 pocket and DRB1*13:02, protective against PSC, had a negative P9 pocket. Conclusion: The results suggest that in patients with PSC, residues 37 and 86 of the HLA-DR beta chain critically influence the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 and thereby the range of peptides presented. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;53:1967-1976)
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2.
  • Alberts, Rudi, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic association analysis identifies variants associated with disease progression in primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 1468-3288. ; 67:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a genetically complex, inflammatory bile duct disease of largely unknown aetiology often leading to liver transplantation or death. Little is known about the genetic contribution to the severity and progression of PSC. The aim of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with PSC disease progression and development of complications.We collected standardised PSC subphenotypes in a large cohort of 3402 patients with PSC. After quality control, we combined 130 422 single nucleotide polymorphisms of all patients-obtained using the Illumina immunochip-with their disease subphenotypes. Using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, we identified genetic variants associated with binary and time-to-event PSC subphenotypes.We identified genetic variant rs853974 to be associated with liver transplant-free survival (p=6.07×10-9). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a 50.9% (95% CI 41.5% to 59.5%) transplant-free survival for homozygous AA allele carriers of rs853974 compared with 72.8% (95% CI 69.6% to 75.7%) for GG carriers at 10 years after PSC diagnosis. For the candidate gene in the region, RSPO3, we demonstrated expression in key liver-resident effector cells, such as human and murine cholangiocytes and human hepatic stellate cells.We present a large international PSC cohort, and report genetic loci associated with PSC disease progression. For liver transplant-free survival, we identified a genome-wide significant signal and demonstrated expression of the candidate gene RSPO3 in key liver-resident effector cells. This warrants further assessments of the role of this potential key PSC modifier gene.
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3.
  • Cleynen, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes : a genetic association study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - New York, USA : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 387:10014, s. 156-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases.Methods This study included patients from 49 centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype-phenotype associations across 156,154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease, ileal Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are all genetically distinct from each other, and to attempt to identify patients with a mismatch between clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profile.Findings: After quality control, the primary analysis included 29,838 patients (16,902 with Crohn's disease, 12,597 with ulcerative colitis). Three loci (NOD2, MHC, and MST1 3p21) were associated with subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease, mainly disease location (essentially fixed over time; median follow-up of 10·5 years). Little or no genetic association with disease behaviour (which changed dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for inflammatory bowel disease showed strong association with disease subphenotype (p=1·65 × 10(-78)), even after exclusion of NOD2, MHC, and 3p21 (p=9·23 × 10(-18)). Predictive models based on the genetic risk score strongly distinguished colonic from ileal Crohn's disease. Our genetic risk score could also identify a small number of patients with discrepant genetic risk profiles who were significantly more likely to have a revised diagnosis after follow-up (p=6·8 × 10(-4)).Interpretation: Our data support a continuum of disorders within inflammatory bowel disease, much better explained by three groups (ileal Crohn's disease, colonic Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis) than by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis as currently defined. Disease location is an intrinsic aspect of a patient's disease, in part genetically determined, and the major driver to changes in disease behaviour over time.Funding: International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium members funding sources (see Acknowledgments for full list).
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4.
  • Liu, Jimmy Z, et al. (författare)
  • Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 45:6, s. 670-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation. We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped using the Immunochip. We identified 12 genome-wide significant associations outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, 9 of which were new, increasing the number of known PSC risk loci to 16. Despite comorbidity with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 72% of the cases, 6 of the 12 loci showed significantly stronger association with PSC than with IBD, suggesting overlapping yet distinct genetic architectures for these two diseases. We incorporated association statistics from 7 diseases clinically occurring with PSC in the analysis and found suggestive evidence for 33 additional pleiotropic PSC risk loci. Together with network analyses, these findings add to the genetic risk map of PSC and expand on the relationship between PSC and other immune-mediated diseases.
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5.
  • Næss, Sigrid, et al. (författare)
  • Refinement of the MHC risk map in a scandinavian primary sclerosing cholangitis population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent the strongest genetic susceptibility factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Identifying the causal variants within this genetic complex represents a major challenge due to strong linkage disequilibrium and an overall high physical density of candidate variants. We aimed to refine the MHC association in a geographically restricted PSC patient panel.
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6.
  • Nakanishi, Tomoko, et al. (författare)
  • Age-dependent impact of the major common genetic risk factor for COVID-19 on severity and mortality
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 131:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND. There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes among younger adults, and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. METHODS. We combined individual level data from 13,888 COVID-19 patients (n = 7185 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in 9 countries to assess the association of the major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor (chromosome 3 locus tagged by rs10490770) with mortality, COVID-19-related complications, and laboratory values. We next performed metaanalyses using FinnGen and the Columbia University COVID-19 Biobank. RESULTS. We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.6), venous thromboembolism (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), and hepatic injury (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0). Risk allele carriers age 60 years and younger had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9) compared with those of more than 60 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; interaction, P = 0.038). Among individuals 60 years and younger who died or experienced severe respiratory failure, 32.3% were risk-variant carriers compared with 13.9% of those not experiencing these outcomes. This risk variant improved the prediction of death or severe respiratory failure similarly to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS. The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, which are more pronounced among individuals 60 years or younger. The effect was similar in magnitude and more common than most established clinical risk factors, suggesting potential implications for future clinical risk management.
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7.
  • Schrumpf, E., et al. (författare)
  • The gut microbiota contributes to a mouse model of spontaneous bile duct inflammation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 66:2, s. 382-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: A strong association between human inflammatory biliary diseases and gut inflammation has led to the hypothesis that gut microbes and lymphocytes activated in the intestine play a role in biliary inflammation. The NOD.c3c4 mouse model develops spontaneous biliary inflammation in extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. We aimed to clarify the role of the gut microbiota in the biliary disease of NOD.c3c4 mice. Methods: We sampled cecal content and mucosa from conventionally raised (CONV-R) NOD.c3c4 and NOD control mice, extracted DNA and performed 16S rRNA sequencing. NOD.c3c4 mice were rederived into a germ free (GF) facility and compared with CONV-R NOD.c3c4 mice. NOD.c3c4 mice were also co-housed with NOD mice and received antibiotics from weaning. Results: The gut microbial profiles of mice with and without biliary disease were different both before and after rederivation (unweighted UniFrac-distance). GF NOD.c3c4 mice had less distended extra-hepatic bile ducts than CONV-R NOD.c3c4 mice, while antibiotic treated mice showed reduction of biliary infarcts. GF animals also showed a reduction in liver weight compared with CONV-R NOD.c3c4 mice, and this was also observed in antibiotic treated NOD.c3c4 mice. Co-housing of NOD and NOD. c3c4 mice indicated that the biliary phenotype was neither transmissible nor treatable by co-housing with healthy mice. Conclusions: NOD.c3c4 and NOD control mice show marked differences in the gut microbiota. GF NOD.c3c4 mice develop a milder biliary affection compared with conventionally raised NOD.c3c4 mice. Our findings suggest that the intestinal micro biota contributes to disease in this murine model of biliary inflammation. Lay summary: Mice with liver disease have a gut microflora (microbiota) that differs substantially from normal mice. In a normal environment, these mice spontaneously develop disease in their bile ducts. However, when these mice, are raised in an environment devoid of bacteria, the disease in the bile ducts diminishes. Overall this clearly indicates that the bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) influences the liver disease in these mice. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Wang, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies variation in vitamin D receptor and other host factors influencing the gut microbiota
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:11, s. 1396-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human gut microbiota is an important determinant for health and disease, and recent studies emphasize the numerous factors shaping its diversity. Here we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the gut microbiota using two cohorts from northern Germany totaling 1,812 individuals. Comprehensively controlling for diet and non-genetic parameters, we identify genome-wide significant associations for overall microbial variation and individual taxa at multiple genetic loci, including the VDR gene (encoding vitamin D receptor). We observe significant shifts in the microbiota of Vdr(-/-) mice relative to control mice and correlations between the microbiota and serum measurements of selected bile and fatty acids in humans, including known ligands and downstream metabolites of VDR. Genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) associations at multiple additional loci identify other important points of host-microbe intersection, notably several disease susceptibility genes and sterol metabolism pathway components. Non-genetic and genetic factors each account for approximately 10% of the variation in gut microbiota, whereby individual effects are relatively small.
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9.
  • Zimmer, Christine L., et al. (författare)
  • A biliary immune landscape map of primary sclerosing cholangitis reveals a dominant network of neutrophils and tissue-resident T cells
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 13:599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human biliary system, a mucosal barrier tissue connecting the liver and intestine, is an organ often affected by serious inflammatory and malignant diseases. Although these diseases are linked to immunological processes, the biliary system represents an unexplored immunological niche. By combining endoscopy-guided sampling of the biliary tree with a high-dimensional analysis approach, comprehensive mapping of the human biliary immunological landscape in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a severe biliary inflammatory disease, was conducted. Major differences in immune cell composition in bile ducts compared to blood were revealed. Furthermore, biliary inflammation in patients with PSC was characterized by high presence of neutrophils and T cells as compared to control individuals without PSC. The biliary T cells displayed a CD103(+)CD69(+) effector memory phenotype, a combined gut and liver homing profile, and produced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22. Biliary neutrophil infiltration in PSC associated with CXCL8, possibly produced by resident T cells, and CXCL16 was linked to the enrichment of T cells. This study uncovers the immunological niche of human bile ducts, defines a local immune network between neutrophils and biliary-resident T cells in PSC, and provides a resource for future studies of the immune responses in biliary disorders.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 26
  • [1]23Nästa

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