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Sökning: WFRF:(Howard Jason)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Stanaway, Jeffrey D., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 392:10159, s. 1923-1994
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk-outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk- outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017.
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3.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
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4.
  • Feng, Shaohong, et al. (författare)
  • Dense sampling of bird diversity increases power of comparative genomics
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 587:7833, s. 252-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whole-genome sequencing projects are increasingly populating the tree of life and characterizing biodiversity(1-4). Sparse taxon sampling has previously been proposed to confound phylogenetic inference(5), and captures only a fraction of the genomic diversity. Here we report a substantial step towards the dense representation of avian phylogenetic and molecular diversity, by analysing 363 genomes from 92.4% of bird families-including 267 newly sequenced genomes produced for phase II of the Bird 10,000 Genomes (B10K) Project. We use this comparative genome dataset in combination with a pipeline that leverages a reference-free whole-genome alignment to identify orthologous regions in greater numbers than has previously been possible and to recognize genomic novelties in particular bird lineages. The densely sampled alignment provides a single-base-pair map of selection, has more than doubled the fraction of bases that are confidently predicted to be under conservation and reveals extensive patterns of weak selection in predominantly non-coding DNA. Our results demonstrate that increasing the diversity of genomes used in comparative studies can reveal more shared and lineage-specific variation, and improve the investigation of genomic characteristics. We anticipate that this genomic resource will offer new perspectives on evolutionary processes in cross-species comparative analyses and assist in efforts to conserve species. A dataset of the genomes of 363 species from the Bird 10,000 Genomes Project shows increased power to detect shared and lineage-specific variation, demonstrating the importance of phylogenetically diverse taxon sampling in whole-genome sequencing.
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5.
  • Fischer, Debra A., et al. (författare)
  • M2K: II. A Triple-Planet System Orbiting HIP 57274
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X. ; 745:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Doppler observations from Keck Observatory have revealed a triple-planet system orbiting the nearby K4V star, HIP 57274. The inner planet, HIP 57274b, is a super-Earth with M sin i = 11.6 M-circle plus (0.036 M-Jup), an orbital period of 8.135 +/- 0.004 days, and slightly eccentric orbit e = 0.19 +/- 0.1. We calculate a transit probability of 6.5% for the inner planet. The second planet has M sin i = 0.4 M-Jup with an orbital period of 32.0 +/- 0.02 days in a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.05 +/- 0.03). The third planet has M sin i = 0.53 M-Jup with an orbital period of 432 +/- 8 days (1.18 years) and an eccentricity e = 0.23 +/- 0.03. This discovery adds to the number of super-Earth mass planets with M sin i < 12 M-circle plus that have been detected with Doppler surveys. We find that 56% +/- 18% of super-Earths are members of multi-planet systems. This is certainly a lower limit because of observational detectability limits, yet significantly higher than the fraction of Jupiter mass exoplanets, 20% +/- 8%, that are members of Doppler-detected, multi-planet systems.
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6.
  • Fischer, Debra A., et al. (författare)
  • M2K. II. A Triple-Planet System Orbiting Hip 57274
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 745:1, s. 21-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Doppler observations from Keck Observatory have revealed a triple-planet system orbiting the nearby K4V star, HIP 57274. The inner planet, HIP 57274b, is a super-Earth with M sin i = 11.6 M-circle plus (0.036 M-Jup), an orbital period of 8.135 +/- 0.004 days, and slightly eccentric orbit e = 0.19 +/- 0.1. We calculate a transit probability of 6.5% for the inner planet. The second planet has M sin i = 0.4 M-Jup with an orbital period of 32.0 +/- 0.02 days in a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.05 +/- 0.03). The third planet has M sin i = 0.53 M-Jup with an orbital period of 432 +/- 8 days (1.18 years) and an eccentricity e = 0.23 +/- 0.03. This discovery adds to the number of super-Earth mass planets with M sin i < 12 M-circle plus that have been detected with Doppler surveys. We find that 56% +/- 18% of super-Earths are members of multi-planet systems. This is certainly a lower limit because of observational detectability limits, yet significantly higher than the fraction of Jupiter mass exoplanets, 20% +/- 8%, that are members of Doppler-detected, multi-planet systems.
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7.
  • Howard, Andrew W., et al. (författare)
  • The California planet survey. I. four new giant exoplanets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 721:2, s. 1467-1481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present precise Doppler measurements of four stars obtained during the past decade at Keck Observatory by the California Planet Survey (CPS). These stars, namely, HD 34445, HD 126614, HD 13931, and Gl 179, all show evidence for a single planet in Keplerian motion. We also present Doppler measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) for two of the stars, HD 34445 and Gl 179, that confirm the Keck detections and significantly refine the orbital parameters. These planets add to the statistical properties of giant planets orbiting near or beyond the ice line, and merit follow-up by astrometry, imaging, and space-borne spectroscopy. Their orbital parameters span wide ranges of planetary minimum mass (M sin i = 0.38-1.9 M-Jup), orbital period (P = 2.87-11.5 yr), semimajor axis (a = 2.1-5.2 AU), and eccentricity (e = 0.02-0.41). HD 34445 b (P = 2.87 yr, M sin i = 0.79 MJup, e = 0.27) is a massive planet orbiting an old, G-type star. We announce a planet, HD 126614 Ab, and an M dwarf, HD 126614 B, orbiting the metal-rich star HD 126614 (which we now refer to as HD 126614 A). The planet, HD 126614 Ab, has minimum mass M sin i = 0.38 MJup and orbits the stellar primary with period P = 3.41 yr and orbital separation a = 2.3 AU. The faint M dwarf companion, HD 126614 B, is separated from the stellar primary by 489 mas (33 AU) and was discovered with direct observations using adaptive optics and the PHARO camera at Palomar Observatory. The stellar primary in this new system, HD 126614 A, has the highest measured metallicity ([ Fe/ H] = + 0.56) of any known planet-bearing star. HD 13931 b (P = 11.5 yr, M sin i = 1.88 MJup, e = 0.02) is a Jupiter analog orbiting a near solar twin. Gl 179 b (P = 6.3 yr, M sin i = 0.82 M-Jup, e = 0.21) is a massive planet orbiting a faint M dwarf. The high metallicity of Gl 179 is consistent with the planet-metallicity correlation among M dwarfs, as documented recently by Johnson & Apps.
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8.
  • Howard, Andrew W., et al. (författare)
  • The NASA-UC Eia-earth program. II. a planet orbiting HD 156668 with a minimum mass of four earth masses
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 726:2, s. 73-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of HD 156668 b, an extrasolar planet with a minimum mass of M-P sin i = 4.15 M-circle plus. This planet was discovered through Keplerian modeling of precise radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and is the second super-Earth to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Survey. The best-fit orbit is consistent with circular and has a period of P = 4.6455 days. The Doppler semi-amplitude of this planet, K = 1.89 m s(-1), is among the lowest ever detected, on par with the detection of GJ 581 e using HARPS. A longer period (P approximate to 2.3 years), low-amplitude signal of unknown origin was also detected in the radial velocities and was filtered out of the data while fitting the short-period planet. Additional data are required to determine if the long-period signal is due to a second planet, stellar activity, or another source. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 156668 (an old, quiet K3 dwarf) is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.1 mmag, supporting the existence of the planet. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of similar to 3 mmag, ruling out transiting planets dominated by extremely bloated atmospheres, but not precluding a transiting solid/liquid planet with a modest atmosphere.
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9.
  • Howard, Andrew W., et al. (författare)
  • THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM : I. A SUPER-EARTH ORBITING HD 7924
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 696:1, s. 75-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of the first low-mass planet to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Program, a super-Earth orbiting the K0 dwarf HD 7924. Keplerian modeling of precise Doppler radial velocities reveals a planet with minimum mass M-P sin i = 9.26M(circle plus) in a P = 5.398 d orbit. Based on Keck-HIRES measurements from 2001 to 2008, the planet is robustly detected with an estimated false alarm probability of less than 0.001. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 7924 is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.19 mmag, supporting the existence of the planetary companion. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of similar to 0.5 mmag, eliminating transiting planets with a variety of compositions. HD 7924b is one of only eight planets detected by the radial velocity technique with M-P sini < 10 M-circle plus and as such is a member of an emerging family of low-mass planets that together constrain theories of planet formation.
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10.
  • Howard, Andrew W., et al. (författare)
  • THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM. III. A SUPER-EARTH ORBITING HD 97658 AND A NEPTUNE-MASS PLANET ORBITING G1 785
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 730:1, s. 10-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of planets orbiting two bright, nearby early K dwarf stars, HD 97658 and G1 785. These planets were detected by Keplerian modeling of radial velocities measured with Keck-HIRES for the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Survey. HD 97658 b is a close-in super-Earth with minimum mass M sin i = 8.2 +/- 1.2 M-circle plus, orbital period P = 9.494 +/- 0.005 days, and an orbit that is consistent with circular. G1 785 b is a Neptune-mass planet with M sin i = 21.6 +/- 2.0 M-circle plus, P = 74.39 +/- 0.12 days, and orbital eccentricity e = 0.30 +/- 0.09. Photometric observations with the T12 0.8 m automatic photometric telescope at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 97658 is photometrically constant at the radial velocity period to 0.09 mmag, supporting the existence of the planet.
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