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1.
  • Beygui, Farzin, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-hospital management of patients with chest pain and/or dyspnoea of cardiac origin. A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) of the ESC.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726. ; 9:1_suppl, s. 59-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the practical aspects of the pre-hospital treatment on board and transfer of patients taken in charge by emergency medical services for chest pain and dyspnoea of suspected cardiac aetiology after the initial assessment and diagnostic work-up. The objective of the paper is to provide guidance, based on evidence, where available, or on experts opinions, for all emergency medical services health providers involved in the pre-hospital management of acute cardiovascular care.
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2.
  • Gödicke, Jochen, et al. (författare)
  • Early versus periprocedural administration of abciximab for primary angioplasty: a pooled analysis of 6 studies.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - 1097-6744. ; 150:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The 2004 ACC/AHA guidelines on ST-elevation myocardial infarction state that it is reasonable to start treatment with abciximab as early as possible before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the potential benefit of early use of abciximab by pooling data from all the available studies. METHODS: Six prospective studies were identified that had allocated 260 patients to receive early abciximab (either prehospital or soon after the patient arrived in hospital) and 342 to receive late abciximab (at the time of PCI). RESULTS: TIMI flow grade 2 or 3 was present in 42% of the early group compared with 29% in the late group (P = .001). After PCI, 59% of patients in the early group showed ST-resolution >or = 70%, compared with 41% in the late group (P = .003). The composite clinical outcomes death, new myocardial infarction, or repeat target vessel revascularization at 30 days occurred in 7.3% of the early group compared with 9.7% in the late group (odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.41-1.32) and death alone occurred in 2.7% versus 4.7%, respectively (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.23-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of abciximab improves epicardial patency (TIMI flow) before PCI and results in better myocardial tissue perfusion (ST-resolution) after the procedure. The promising effects on clinical outcomes need to be tested in larger studies.
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3.
  • Huynh, Thao, et al. (författare)
  • The Pre-Hospital Fibrinolysis Experience in Europe and North America and Implications for Wider Dissemination
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS. - : Elsevier. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 4:8, s. 877-883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The primary objective of this report was to describe the infrastructures and processes of selected European and North American pre-hospital fibrinolysis (PHL) programs. A secondary objective is to report the outcome data of the PHL programs surveyed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBackground Despite its benefit in reducing mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, PHL remained underused in North America. Examination of existing programs may provide insights to help address barriers to the implementation of PHL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods The leading investigators of PHL research projects/national registries were invited to respond to a survey on the organization and outcomes of their affiliated PHL programs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults PHL was successfully deployed in a wide range of geographic territories (Europe: France, Sweden, Vienna, England, and Wales; North America: Houston, Edmonton, and Nova Scotia) and was delivered by healthcare professionals of varying expertise. In-hospital major adverse outcomes were rare with mortality of 3% to 6%, reinfarction of 2% to 5%, and stroke of andlt;2%. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions Combining formal protocols for PHL for some patients with direct transportation of others to a percutaneous coronary intervention hospital for primary percutaneous coronary intervention would allow for tailored reperfusion therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Insights from a variety of international settings may promote widespread use of PHL and increase timely coronary reperfusion worldwide.
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4.
  • Mair, J., et al. (författare)
  • How is cardiac troponin released from injured myocardium?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal-Acute Cardiovascular Care. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726. ; 7:6, s. 553-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T are nowadays the criterion biomarkers for the laboratory diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction due to their very high sensitivities and specificities for myocardial injury. However, still many aspects of their degradation, tissue release and elimination from the human circulation are incompletely understood. Myocardial injury may be caused by a variety of different mechanisms, for example, myocardial ischaemia, inflammatory and immunological processes, trauma, drugs and toxins, and myocardial necrosis is preceded by a substantial reversible prelethal phase. Recent experimental data in a pig model of myocardial ischaemia demonstrated cardiac troponin release into the circulation from apoptotic cardiomyocytes as an alternative explanation for clinical situations with increased cardiac troponin without any other evidence for myocardial necrosis. However, the comparably lower sensitivities of all currently available imaging modalities, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of particularly non-focal myocardial necrosis in patients, has to be considered for cardiac troponin test result interpretation in clinical settings without any other evidence for myocardial necrosis apart from increased cardiac troponin concentrations as well.
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7.
  • Ahlin, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNAs as circulating biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes: A review
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Vascular pharmacology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1537-1891 .- 1879-3649. ; 81, s. 15-21
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its complications remain the most common cause of death worldwide. Cardiac troponins (cTn) are standard biomarkers used today for diagnosis and risk stratification of myocardial infarction (MI). Increasing efforts are made to develop additional, new biomarkers for more effective and safe rule-in and rule-out of MI patients at the emergency department. During the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as new, potential diagnostic biomarkers in several diseases, including MI. In this review, we aimed to summarize some of the prominent studies in the field, and discuss the potential value of miRNAs in the diagnosis of MI. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Aimo, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • High-sensitivity troponin T, NT-proBNP and glomerular filtration rate : A multimarker strategy for risk stratification in chronic heart failure
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 277, s. 166-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In a recent individual patient data meta-analysis, high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) emerged as robust predictor of prognosis in stable chronic heart failure (HF). In the same population, we compared the relative predictive performances of hs-TnT, N-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for prognosis.Methods and results: 9289 patients (66 ± 12 years, 77% men, 85% LVEF <40%, 60% ischemic HF) were evaluated over a 2.4-year median follow-up. Median eGFR was 58 mL/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile interval 46–70; n = 9220), hs-TnT 16 ng/L (8–20; n = 9289), NT-proBNP 1067 ng/L (433–2470; n = 8845), and hs-CRP 3.3 mg/L (1.4–7.8; n = 7083). In a model including all 3 biomarkers, only hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were independent predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. hs-TnT was a stronger predictor than NT-proBNP: for example, the risk for all-cause death increased by 54% per doubling of hs-TnT vs. 24% per doubling of NT-proBNP. eGFR showed independent prognostic value from both hs-TnT and NT-proBNP. The best hs-TnT and NT-proBNP cut-offs for the prediction of all-cause death increased progressively with declining renal function (eGFR ≥ 90: hs-TnT 13 ng/L and NT-proBNP 825 ng/L; eGFR < 30: hs-TnT 40 ng/L and NT-proBNP 4608 ng/L). Patient categorization according to these cut-offs effectively stratified patient prognosis across all eGFR classes.Conclusions: hs-TnT conveys independent prognostic information from NT-proBNP, while hs-CRP does not. Concomitant assessment of eGFR may further refine risk stratification. Patient classification according to hs-TnT and NT-proBNP cut-offs specific for the eGFR classes holds prognostic significance.
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9.
  • Aimo, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Chronic Heart Failure : An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 137:3, s. 286-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Most patients with chronic heart failure have detectable troponin concentrations when evaluated by high-sensitivity assays. The prognostic relevance of this finding has not been clearly established so far. We aimed to assess high-sensitivity troponin assay for risk stratification in chronic heart failure through a meta-analysis approach.Methods: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched in April 2017 by 2 independent authors. The terms were “troponin” AND “heart failure” OR “cardiac failure” OR “cardiac dysfunction” OR “cardiac insufficiency” OR “left ventricular dysfunction.” Inclusion criteria were English language, clinical stability, use of a high-sensitivity troponin assay, follow-up studies, and availability of individual patient data after request to authors. Data retrieved from articles and provided by authors were used in agreement with the PRISMA statement. The end points were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for cardiovascular cause.Results: Ten studies were included, reporting data on 11 cohorts and 9289 patients (age 66±12 years, 77% men, 60% ischemic heart failure, 85% with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%). High-sensitivity troponin T data were available for all patients, whereas only 209 patients also had high-sensitivity troponin I assayed. When added to a prognostic model including established risk markers (sex, age, ischemic versus nonischemic etiology, left ventricular ejection fraction, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and N-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T remained independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–1.55), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.33–1.48), and cardiovascular hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–1.49), over a median 2.4-year follow-up (all P<0.001). High-sensitivity troponin T significantly improved risk prediction when added to a prognostic model including the variables above. It also displayed an independent prognostic value for all outcomes in almost all population subgroups. The area under the curve–derived 18 ng/L cutoff yielded independent prognostic value for the 3 end points in both men and women, patients with either ischemic or nonischemic etiology, and across categories of renal dysfunction.Conclusions: In chronic heart failure, high-sensitivity troponin T is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes, as well. This biomarker then represents an additional tool for prognostic stratification.
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10.
  • Aimo, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Revisiting the obesity paradox in heart failure : Per cent body fat as predictor of biomarkers and outcome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Sage Publications. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 26:16, s. 1751-1759
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is characterized by better prognosis and lower plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure. We assessed whether another anthropometric measure, per cent body fat (PBF), reveals different associations with outcome and heart failure biomarkers (NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2)). Methods In an individual patient dataset, BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m) (2) , and PBF through the Jackson-Pollock and Gallagher equations. Results Out of 6468 patients (median 68 years, 78% men, 76% ischaemic heart failure, 90% reduced ejection fraction), 24% died over 2.2 years (1.5-2.9), 17% from cardiovascular death. Median PBF was 26.9% (22.4-33.0%) with the Jackson-Pollock equation, and 28.0% (23.8-33.5%) with the Gallagher equation, with an extremely strong correlation (r = 0.996, p < 0.001). Patients in the first PBF tertile had the worst prognosis, while patients in the second and third tertile had similar survival. The risks of all-cause and cardiovascular death decreased by up to 36% and 27%, respectively, per each doubling of PBF. Furthermore, prognosis was better in the second or third PBF tertiles than in the first tertile regardless of model variables. Both BMI and PBF were inverse predictors of NT-proBNP, but not hs-TnT. In obese patients (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2), third PBF tertile), hs-TnT and sST2, but not NT-proBNP, independently predicted outcome. Conclusion In parallel with increasing BMI or PBF there is an improvement in patient prognosis and a decrease in NT-proBNP, but not hs-TnT or sST2. hs-TnT or sST2 are stronger predictors of outcome than NT-proBNP among obese patients.
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